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WHISTLER 



ELISABETH 

LUTHER 

CARY 




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THE WORKS OF 

james McNeill whistler 




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THE WORKS OF 



james McNeill 
whistler 



A STUDY BY 

ELISABETH LUTHER CARY 



WITH A TENTATIVE LIST 

OF THE 

ARTIST'S WORKS 



MOFFAT, YARD AND COMPANY 

NEW YORK 

LONDON OFFICE: $ HENRIETTA STR. COVENT GARDEN 

1913 



OCT 10 1985 



Copyright, 1907, by 

MOFFAT, YARD & COMPANY 

NEW YORK 

Published January, 1907 



TO 

GEORGE MARTIN LUTHER 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

I. Whistler's Beginnings 3 

II. French Environment 11 

III. English Environment 35 

IV. The Entrance of Japan 55 

V. Characterisations 71 

VI. Etchings 95 

VII. Lithographs 125 

VIII. On Whistler's Theory of Art 137 

Introduction to List of Whistler's Pictures 147 

An Incomplete List of Whistler's Paintings in Oil 

and Water-colour, and Drawings 153 

A List of Whistler's Lithographs (compiled 

chiefly from the Memorial Catalogues) . . . 233 

A List of Whistler's Etchings (compiled chiefly 

from the Memorial Catalogues) 255 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



Pretty Nellie grown 


Frontispiece 


At the Piano - - - Facing 


page 14 


The Blue Wave — Biarritz 


- 


18 


Drouet — Etching - 




- 22 


The Lagoon — Venice 


- 


28 


The White Girl - . . . 




• 38 


The Dancer - 


- 


42 


The Little White Girl - 




- 46 


Symphony in White — Xo. 3 - 


- 


48 


Draped Figure Standing 


- 


50 


Die Lange Leizen - 




• 56 


The Falling Rocket - 


- 


64 


Portrait of Carlyle ... 




- 74 


Portrait of Whistler's Mother - 


- 


76 


Portrait of Miss Cicily Henrietta Alexander 




- 78 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS— Continued 



PAGE 



Henry Irving as Philip II. - - 82 

Portrait of M. Buret - - - ~ 86 

The Lady with the Yellow &uskin - - 90 

The Rag Gatherers - - - 98 

Jo's Bent Head - - - 102 

Whistler roith the White Lock— Etching - - 106 

Early 'Portrait of Whistler by himself - - / / 6 

The Horoscope - 126 

Mother and Child— No. 2 - - - 130 

The Gossips — Ajaccio - 132 

The Doorway — Venice - 138 

The Shop — Algiers - - - "142 

The Golf Links — Dublin - - - -144 

Portrait of Comte de Montesquoiu-Fezansac - 160 

Iris - 176 

The Cemetery — Venice - 198 



PREFACE 



PREFACE 

My aim in writing about Whistler has been a very 
simple one. I have wished merely to express the kind 
of pleasure in his work that may be taken by an un- 
technical observer, believing that no special vision is 
required to get from it the satisfaction given by any 
genuine form of art. I have tried to follow a general 
chronological sequence, but have made no great point 
of this, as the chronology of his works is very imper- 
fectly determined in published sources, to which alone 
I have had access. Many of his critics no doubt are 
more familiar with his art than I am, yet they have 
not, I think, placed enough stress on those expressive 
and "human" qualities in it that seem to me most 
obvious. Of course, such qualities may be in my 
imagination only, but through the kindness of the 
owners I have been able to verify and strengthen 
impressions of a much earlier date by review of a 
considerable number of his works in various mediums? 
I shall feel entirely rewarded if by discussing them 
from my own point of view, I may have the good 
fortune to stimulate a somewhat more general, a some- 
what less esoteric, interest in an art that seems to me 



peculiarly to appeal to the aesthetic instincts of the 
American mind, if not to the superficial side of 
American taste. I am aware that no discussion of 
Whistler's art, however simple, is without its perils. 
It was Montaigne who said "Je reviendrois volontiers 
de l'autre monde pour dementir celuy qui me formeroit 
autre que je n'estcis, fut-ce pour m'honorer." 
Whistler's art, however, lives to contradict those who 
misrepresent it "even to honour him." 

I have to express my warmest thanks to those who 
have, frequently at no little inconvenience to them- 
selves, made it possible to see their pictures, and 
particularly to the collectors who have permitted 
reproductions to be made. I must especially acknowl- 
edge a great obligation to the friends who have read 
my manuscript and have helped me by suggestions 
and corrections; and I must also acknowledge the 
assistance of Mr. David Kennedy, who has put me in 
communication with foreign owners of Whistler's 
works, and in many other ways has facilitated my 
task. 

For such data of Whistler's student years, sur- 
roundings, etc., as I have used, I have depended upon 
M. Duret's Life and M. Leonce Benedite's articles in 
the Gazette des Beaux Arts. 



WHISTLER'S BEGINNINGS 



CHAPTER FIRST. 

Whistler's Beginnings. 

WHISTLER already was an artist when, at the 
age of twenty-one, he went to study in 
Gleyre's Paris atelier toward the end of 
1855. Of this we have more than one proof. He not 
only had etched the now famous marginal designs on 
the Coast Survey plate which commemorates his brief 
career as a servant of the United States Government ; 
he had produced a number of drawings and paintings 
that went much farther than merely to foreshadow 
his later accomplishment. Fromentin said of Rubens : 
"He is asked for his studies and he has nothing to 
show, as it were, but works. " Almost the same could 
be said of Whistler, so little is there of the tentative 
and groping in his first essays in art. Two pen-and- 
ink drawings (made with brown ink or possibly 
sepia) were recently on exhibition in one of the rooms 
of the Albright Art Gallery at Buffalo, to which they 
were loaned by Dr. Roswell Park. According to the 
description accompanying them, they were made by 
Whistler when a boy in the school of Dr. Park's 
father at Pomfret, Connecticut, between 1850 and 
1852. ( x ) He was not more than sixteen or seventeen 
years old at that time, but the drawings might well be 



( a ) Miss Mary Park (the owner of the drawings) writes that she 
thinks their date was 1851 or 1852, that it could not have been later than 
1852 as the school was then given up. 



4 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

the work of a trained hand. In one a man is playing 
a fiddle, while some of his companions dance and 
others look on. The naturalness of pose and gesture 
and the reserve in the artistic expression of the rather 
complicated subject speak of anything but immaturity, 
and show that the characteristics of the later style 
were natural to Whistler and not formed by outer 
influences. Each line tells its essential fact in the 
composition; there are no foolish accessories, there 
is no uncertainty of handling. Apparently the im- 
pression was formed in the mind with entire precision 
before the pen began to translate it. The graceful 
action of the fiddler's hand and his quiet, relaxed atti- 
tude are in pleasant contrast to the abounding energy 
of the dancing figures, in which sheer abandonment 
to the joy of their motion is indicated with the utmost 
delicacy and vivacity, and by a method quite as 
synthetic as that of any of the Venetian etchings. 
The whole spirit of the little scene is conveyed with 
the discrimination and humour to be expected as the 
fruit of experience and slow time, not at all as the 
quality of a youthful talent; nor is the artistic 
simplicity shown in it the naivete frequently found in 
the work of children and always so astonishing there. 
The mind and eye had gone a step farther than that, 
but had not lost the instinct of selection. 

The other drawing is of a man sitting with crossed 
feet and folded arms on a barrel. This solid little 
figure, sitting firmly, is also a complete statement and 
the execution, more elaborate than in the first draw- 



WHISTLER'S BEGINNINGS 5 

ing, is neither loose nor fumbling, but crisp, certain, 
and without flourish. 

Two water-colours, also dating back to the Pomfret 
school-days, were shown at the London Memorial 
Exhibition, and one of these, catalogued as Sam 
Welter's Lodging in the Fleet Prison, was reproduced 
in the volume by Messrs. Way and Dennis on Whist- 
ler's work, with the title Sam Weller's Landlord in the 
Fleet. It gives even in the reproduction an idea of 
the remarkable command over his material with 
which Whistler was endowed from the first. The fat 
shrewd face of the cobbler, the excellent construction 
of his figure, the delicacy with which the difficult 
effects of the smoke from his pipe and the flame of his 
candle are rendered, show an observation already 
adequate to grasp pictorial values and a hand prompt 
and obedient to the dictation of the mind. A still 
earlier achievement, a little bust portrait of an elderly 
aunt, introduces the text of M. Duret's Life. It bears 
the date 1844 and although it has a childlike quaint- 
ness and awkwardness, it betrays a very definite con- 
cern on the part of the young artist with modelled line 
and significant light and shade. 

Other very early drawings and sketches were 
shown at the Boston Exhibition in 1904, and the pub- 
lic has had a reasonable opportunity to recognize what 
hardly can be called Whistler's precocity, what is 
rather the innate sensitiveness to aesthetic truths that 
all through his life kept him from seeing things in any 
but a pictorial way. All these early drawings convey 



6 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

the sense of its having been out of his power to render 
a thing crudely or without an instinct for the right 
choice among the multitudinous possibilities offered 
by his material. Apparently he was born with the 
capacity for which many a painter strives unsuccess- 
fully throughout his career, the capacity to ignore 
whatever did not serve the purpose of his art. In a 
word he never saw too much. And the very charac- 
teristics which frequently are described as distinc- 
tively those of the later periods, are found from time 
to time in the earlier work, so that the observer is 
never safe from having an assumption based upon in- 
complete knowledge suddenly overturned by the ap- 
pearance of some little drawing or painting which, 
like those of the Pomfret school, must be assigned to 
an unquestionably early date, and which nevertheless 
wears the peculiar charm of the mature style. 

This unexpectedness, this freedom from the steady 
march of an orderly and measured development, gives 
an inexpressible freshness to the various performance. 
Not to be able to say of a man that he worked this way 
in youth and that way in age, not to be able to pin him 
down to stiff classifications and convenient sequences, 
to have him escape catalogue and criticism at every 
point, means that his genius was vital throughout and 
that it possessed the classic merit of elasticity. This 
quality of elasticity is revealed constantly in Whist- 
ler's accomplishment; in his transitions from one 
medium to another and from one scale to another; in 
his ability to preserve in each medium its appropriate 



WHISTLER'S BEGINNINGS 7 

and especial character, and in his swift response to 
the inner sentiment and mood of the scene before him. 
Neither in his youth nor in his age, if we may judge 
from his art, did he ever know an insensitive or un- 
observant moment. 

It would be easy to assume that such a tempera- 
ment would prove extremely susceptible to influences 
from without, and would pass through more than the 
common number of modifications by other minds. 
Much has been written, indeed, of Whistler's debt to 
certain contemporaries and forerunners, but it is diffi- 
cult to find that these did more than lightly to sway his 
fancy toward a manner of composition at one moment 
or a choice of subject at another. They have not 
robbed his work of its individuality even where most 
is to be said for their share in it. Nothing, however, 
is more interesting than to try to trace in any complex 
human performance the psychological gravitation that 
keeps each personality, however strong, from 
dropping out of its place in the system, and Whistler's 
environment during his early years as an art student 
provided him with many contacts, of which a few 
seem to have affected his art to a greater or less de- 
gree, and others to have exercised no influence what- 
ever upon it. It was a critical moment in the history 
of modern painting. It was the moment at which it 
might be said that the purely modern impulse toward 
uniting art with science came of age and claimed 
freedom of action. The conflict between the old ideas 
and the new ideas had begun in earnest and it was 



8 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

already obvious that the cause of the younger genera- 
tion was to be the gaining cause, in spite of the inflex- 
ible attitude of those who felt themselves the guard- 
ians of the old tradition. Only the most stolid intelli- 
gence could have come into a field so crowded with 
personal interests and adventures and failed to range 
itself either tacitly or openly on one side or the other ; 
or to receive impressions that demanded to be tested 
before the final choice was made. 



FRENCH ENVIRONMENT 



CHAPTER SECOND. 

French Environment. 

THUS Whistler, going to Paris for an education 
which turned out to be perhaps chiefly a self- 
education, found himself surrounded by a 
group of combative, industrious, clear-headed, inquir- 
ing and talented young painters, whose minds, if some- 
times acrobatically inclined, were in the main incisive 
and orderly, and bent upon interrogating artistic prob- 
lems at first hand, preparing the way for the revo- 
lution in standards of which Courbet was the boister- 
ous herald. 

M. Duret, in his account of Manet's life, has drawn 
a vivid picture of the difficulties under which painters 
with a personal vision and a fresh ideal were obliged 
in the late fifties and early sixties to struggle toward 
recognition. Manet began his formal study of paint- 
ing in the atelier of Couture whom he left in 1856, not 
long after Whistler arrived in Paris. Couture had 
identified himself with the Romantic School of which 
Delacroix, who died in 1863, was the acknowledged 
leader, and which, despite its several great disciples, 
encouraged a false and bombastic sentiment opposed 
both to nature and art. Historical painting was in its 
full vogue and Couture was conventional and acade- 
mic in his management of historical subjects, al- 
though, looking back across nearly half a century of 
very different aesthetic aims, it is possible to find him 



12 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

at least soothing in his measured application of a dis- 
tinct philosophy to his rather dull canvasses. "He be- 
lieved, with a majority of the artists of his time," says 
M. Buret, "in the excellence of a fixed ideal, opposed 
to realism, as it was termed with horror. Only cer- 
tain subjects were then believed worthy of art. 
Scenes from antiquity, the representation of Greeks 
and Romans, were given the preference as having in 
themselves the character of nobility; the men of the 
present, on the contrary, with their frock-coats and 
every day apparel, were to be avoided as offering only 
realistic motives in contradiction to art. Religious 
subjects were held proper to great art, but first and 
foremost came the nude, which herein was et prin- 
cipium et fons. Next, in a somewhat lower grade, but 
still acceptable, came compositions drawn from coun- 
tries having an exotic charm for the imagination, 
such as those of the Orient. An Egyptian landscape 
was worthy in itself, an artist enamoured of the ideal 
might paint the sands of the desert, but to paint a 
Normandy pasture with cows and fruit-trees was to 
be sunk in realism and degraded/ ' It was against 
such theories that Manet's independent temper re- 
volted. He was the drastic innovator in French 
painting; the man who overturned old traditions, 
or to speak more truly, ignored them and made 
others which were in harmony with the still older 
past of the great masters, but he was not, of 
course, the first iconoclastic spirit of his time. Cour- 
bet was earlier in the field of sheer realism which 



FRENCH ENVIRONMENT 13 

he so intensely though more or less brutally conceived, 
and about Courbet circled the ardent ones who pro- 
claimed their love of reality and their detestation of 
Academies. 

Whistler was well prepared to take his part in the 
discussions of the day. During some years of boy- 
hood spent in Russia he had learned to speak the 
French language as though it were his own. This 
saved him the tedious effort of translating into a new 
vocabulary the thoughts and feelings of those about 
him. It gave him practically another tool which he 
understood as he understood his etching needle; it 
made it easy for him to enter at once upon the life of 
a French student without any preliminary knocking 
at the door and fumbling with the latch. The life of 
a French student still included the practice of copying 
at the Louvre, the old masters being not yet dis- 
credited as guides to new mastery. Fantin-Latour, 
Legros, Manet, Bracquemond, were among those 
frequenting the galleries, and Whistler also copied 
there such curiously diverse painters as Ingres, 
Boucher, and Velasquez. 

It was at the Louvre that he met Fantin-Latour, 
according to M. Benedite's account of the friendship 
that presently sprang up between the two young men 
who represented radically different types of mind and 
temperament, but who found in one another a com- 
mon impulse toward sanity and sincerity of artistic 
expression. 

Fantin-Latour was one of those in whom as in 



14 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

books, in the Bishop of Durham's phrase, "we find the 
dead, as it were, living/ ' His youth was spent almost 
exclusively in disengaging from the pictures of the 
past the spirit and method of those who painted them. 
"Rubens and Veronese discovered him to himself," 
one of his critics says, and his long apprenticeship to 
the humble task of copying masterpieces, undertaken 
as it was in a mood not of literalism but of poetic analy- 
sis, resulted in a facility and felicity of handling little 
short of marvelous. As true to himself as to his great 
models, he developed his own style while searching for 
the secret of theirs. Technically accomplished, dedi- 
cated to the old, yet sensitive to new excellence, he 
must inevitably have exercised a mild and harmoniz- 
ing influence on the turbulent forces encircling him, 
and it is easy to believe that Whistler derived from the 
sobriety and measure, the good taste and intelligence 
of his works, a degree of profit not lightly to be esti- 
mated ; and that to the end he felt the effect of his wise 
example. 

M. Benedite, at all events, sees definite traces of 
Fantin in Whistler's first important composition, en- 
titled At the Piano, painted during a visit to England 
and exhibited at the Royal Academy in i860. He has 
described the picture with reference to this influence 
as follows : 

"In a softly lighted interior a woman, seated at the 
left of the canvas, is playing on the piano, at the right 
stands a little girl, leaning on the piano and listening 
in an attentive attitude. These are his (Whistler's) 



FRENCH ENVIRONMENT 15 

sister, Mrs. (now Lady) Haden, and his niece Annie, 
already made the subject of a delicious etching. The 
mother is wholly in profile, in a black dress ; the little 
girl is all in white with blonde hair falling on her 
shoulders. Under the piano, violin and violincello 
cases repeat the black note of the dress. On the floor 
is a covering of plain red which corresponds to the red 
covering of a round table behind Mrs. Haden, on 
which is placed a Chinese cup decorated in blue and 
gold. The background, very light and soft, is of 
grayish- white with bands of water-green and gold; 
the wall is adorned, as always in Fantin's pictures, by 
the lower portions of two great picture frames, the 
gold of which gleams dimly. The just agreement of 
these sober discriminated tones, these reds and rus- 
sets, these blacks and whites, these grays and golds; 
the relation of the figures to the background from 
which they detach themselves quietly, bathed in at- 
mosphere; the flesh-tones suffused with a limpid bril- 
liancy as though softened by the glow of light; the 
transparency of the shadows; the caressing vibration 
of the lights ; the whole precious canvas, of the rarest 
sensibility, evokes the memory of those Brodeuses 
and of that Liseuse with which it went to the combat 
in that Salon of 1859, the first to which the two friends 
had dared adventure." 

The two friends were both defeated, sharing the 
fate of all who attempted to produce art that fell out- 
side of academic custom and formula, and it was on 
this occasion that Bonvin, a painter a number of years 



16 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

the senior of Whistler and his companions, threw 
open his studio for an exhibition of their rejected 
works, and brought to this little Salon des Refuses 
Courbet and other artists who marked Whistler for 
their particular praise. 

In Courbet also M. Benedite finds an influence that 
makes itself felt in Whistler's early pictures, more 
especially in his pictures of the sea. Such an assump- 
tion involves an adaptation of Whistler's vision to 
a vision, absolutely unlike his own, that saw the 
outer wrappings of nature where her delicate inner 
forms were revealed to his subtler observation. It 
is hardly contestable that between certain pictures by 
Whistler and certain pictures by Courbet a clear like- 
ness exists, but it seems to be confined to qualities held 
in common with others, with Manet, for example, 
whose direct vision already had enabled him to pro- 
duce masterpieces. It is true that The Blue Wave, 
painted by Whistler at Biarritz in 1862 (now owned 
by Mr. Alfred Atmore Pope of Farmington) is ex- 
tremely like a painting of the open sea by Courbet which 
recently has hung in the Cottier Galleries in New York, 
but Courbet's picture which apparently is a study for 
his great picture of La Mer Orageuse (now commonly 
called La Vague) of 1870, cannot have been painted as 
early as Whistler's of 1862, so what influence can be 
traced logically must be traced to Whistler. Each is 
the portrait of the ocean in an angry mood. The 
sound of the rollers booming toward the shore almost 
can be heard in Whistler's picture; the forms are even 






FRENCH ENVIRONMENT 17 

bolder than in Courbet's, the advance of the waves 
is more irresistible, the sky domes with a vaster curve, 
there is a clearer conception of elemental force and 
majesty. "The sea here is terrible/' Whistler wrote 
from Biarritz in a letter describing a narrow escape 
from drowning, and it is precisely the terrible aspect 
of the engulfing waves that he has rendered. He has 
rendered also the liquid quality of the water more 
fluently than Courbet and his churning foam shows 
less tormented brushwork. Courbet's characteristic 
brown is in the foreground, but the blue is that of 
Whistler's own especial palette; intense and vital. 
Some subtler resemblance than a mere account of 
technical likenesses could show, dwells, however, in 
the two canvases and it is not surprising that the 
older man is held responsible for it by those who have 
not followed the work of the two with regard to 
chronological sequence. In Whistler's picture, as in 
Courbet's, we see a bluffness of temper, a vigour of 
description that suggests a man of action rather than 
a fastidious discriminating observer. How differently 
Whistler was to paint the sea, with how much more 
reticence and mystery, is revealed by another pic- 
ture in the same collection, the Symphony in Blue 
and Violet, a masterpiece of noble eloquence com- 
pressing into a few elements all the poetry of whipping 
spray and driving clouds, of unquiet powers and thick 
salt air. 

This picture also shows us the open sea with billows 
advancing, their blanched crests driven forward by 



18 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

the wind — not near us as in The Blue Wave but far 
off on the horizon where their smallness makes us 
realize the immensity of the space they must traverse 
to reach us. This space is filled with the restlessness 
of the heaving water that rolls and rocks with per- 
petual change of colour and form. Across the sullen 
deep skims toward us a sharp light edge of foam, and 
on the horizon a small white sail calls to it with an- 
other note. Two other boats are riding the billow, 
the larger a soft gray shape against the low gray sky 
which breaks into a pale turquoise at the top, and 
across which ragged clouds are passing. The horizon 
line dips and rises like a melody and its irregular 
curves are echoed in the forms of the clouds. The 
merits of the execution are great even for Whistler's 
brush, but the fine imagination that pervades the can- 
vas, that fills it with a sombre splendour and wraps it 
in an austere poetic sentiment, is greater. It tells us 
that the artist in laying aside the realism of The Blue 
Wave became only a still more subtle realist. In the 
Blue and Violet if he has eliminated everything that 
could interrupt the breadth of the effect he has kept 
everything that contributes to the essential truth of 
the scene. The difference is simple. It is not the ob- 
server but the maker who has set his seal upon the 
canvas. 

We must, however, continue to beware of sharp 
divisions. In The Blue Wave also, despite its thicker 
skin and more matter of fact realization, we find the 
generalization that makes the least poetic of Whist- 




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FRENCH ENVIRONMENT 19 

ler's pictures something more than realism, and it is 
interesting to ask ourselves at this point, if in his asso- 
ciation with Courbet he did not modify the older 
painter's point of view as much as he was modified by 
it, if not more. There seem to be indications that he 
did. One of Courbet's most enlightened critics, M. 
Paul Mantz, writing in 1878, says of La Vague 
(painted eight years later than Whistler's Blue 
Wave) : "It is an impassioned effort that does Cour- 
bet much honour. The painting in this case is com- 
plicated with that subtle and intangible element that 
makes it impossible not to believe that the artist has 
intended to make a synthesis of the wave, he has added 
abstraction to its concrete phenomenon; he has, so 
far as it lay in his power, submitted to the fatality of 
the ideal." It is not entirely fanciful, I think, to read 
in this a suggestion, too slight for serious emphasis 
yet quite distinct, that Whistler's way of looking at 
nature reacted upon Courbet and led him after his 
gusty burial of romance toward an art of eliminations 
and refinements foreign to his habitual processes. 
There are other signs as well, that fix more exactly 
the moment of this relenting. The summers of 1865 
and 1866, according to M. Duret, were spent by 
Whistler in Courbet's company at Trouville, the two 
living and painting side by side. One of Whistler's 
pictures of this period (now in Mrs. Gardner's collec- 
tion) has Courbet's figure in the foreground. It is 
painted rather more dryly than most of Whistler's 
sea-pictures, but there is much of Whistler and little 



20 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

if any of Courbet in the treatment, the wan sands and 
the silvery shimmer of the blue showing unmistakably 
his own feeling for colour and his discrimination in 
rare tones. We think of it as having been the same 
had he been alone at Trouville. But in Courbet's 
painting of these tw r o summers, M. Mantz finds a new 
sensitiveness to subtleties of nature not before inter- 
rogated by the master's sturdy vision. Without re- 
ferring to the companionship of Whistler, perhaps 
ignorant of it, he traces in Courbet's canvasses pre- 
cisely the qualities that are evoked by the thought of 
Whistler's attitude toward the visible world. (*) 

"Among these views of sky and sea," he says, 
"many are superb, speaking to the eye and to the 
mind by visual characteristics, the charm of which 
had long been disregarded by Courbet, for they have 
depth of distance, vital air, luminous atmosphere." 
And in another reference to the work of these sum- 
mers, he frankly announces his amazement that Cour- 
bet should have sought to refine upon nature in draw- 
ing from his model for the Baigneuse of 1866. "Cour- 
bet seized with a fervour for elegance very curious 
to note in him," he says, "wished to make his bather 
slender." 

In these comments as in the one or two canvasses 



(*) Mr. August F. Jaccaci tells me that none of Courbet's "waves," 
which are numerous, has been traced to a date earlier than these years 
spent with Whistler at Trouville, and that La Vague now in the 
Louvre did not get this name until after 1870, its first title being La Mer 
Orageuese. Therefore, it is not possible that Whistler's * • wave " of 1862 
owes anything to similar subjects by Courbet, the earliest of which must 
have followed The Blue Wave by at least three years. 



FRENCH ENVIRONMENT 21 

by Courbet painted at about that period, which have 
been accessible to the present writer, it is at least pos- 
sible to read admissions rather touching than other- 
wise and as creditable to Courbet as they are flatter- 
ing to Whistler, that the exquisite talent of the latter 
was not lost upon his companion who for the time of 
their close companionship became anew the pupil of 
nature, of a more charming nature than he had 
hitherto known, a teacher who set him difficult tasks 
which he bravely accomplished and won from him 
recognitions which he gave with delicacy. If Whist- 
ler lent synthesis, daintiness, an ambient air to Cour- 
bet and Courbet emphasized in Whistler the force of 
primitive nature and the joy of the obvious, it was per- 
haps an equitable exchange that should not be re- 
gretted for either, but that should not be held respon- 
sible for any of the "realism" of Whistler's art. His 
respect for reality was too deeply ingrained to be in- 
fluenced by the practice of other artists, whatever at- 
tention he may have accorded to their theories. 

It seems to be only in the earlier, perhaps only in 
the earliest canvasses by Whistler that we may look 
with any degree of confidence for the signs on his part 
that he was in the neighbourhood of the "rnaitre 
d'Ornans" and where these signs exist they do not 
convey the idea of imitation nor are they unwelcome 
as a feature of his art. They show an attitude of 
hospitality to experimental ideas, of freshness of 
thought and of enthusiasm pleasant to find in any art 
so remote as Whistler's, so selective, so fastidious, so 



22 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

personal. In 1862 he painted The Last of Old West- 
minster, now owned by Mr. Pope, in a mood of down- 
right statement which at least makes us remember 
that Courbet at the same time was painting in a mood 
as downright. The picture represents the demolition 
of the old Westminster Bridge and the building of the 
new. The great structure is drawn with the boldest 
yet the most specific definition of form. Nothing has 
been omitted or attenuated in its long stretch across 
the canvas. Workmen are engaged on the new bridge 
of which one span is seen, there are scaffoldings and 
heavy piles and little boats ; on the Surrey side of the 
river are buildings and trees, — all are rendered with 
fidelity and an apparent delight in the power of art to 
reproduce the actual without much picking and choos- 
ing, with merely the quick grasp of handsome bold 
effects well within the reach and with a use of blonde 
brown in the water that recalls Courbet's. It is not 
an artistic temper that a painter with Whistler's 
tendencies and prepossessions would be expected to 
retain for a lifetime, but as the ebullient note of youth 
it was in place and cheering. In such a picture a part 
of our satisfaction with it comes from its intangible 
suggestions that the painter was young, was in love 
with his art, was knowing joyous days, was compan- 
ionable with other minds. 

This special quality may, of course, have been in- 
spired by contact with Courbet's own limitless youth- 
fulness ; but it is not probable, as this painting also pre- 
ceded the period of close association between the two 




DROUET. 
(From the Etching.) 



FRENCH ENVIRONMENT 23 

artists. It should be remembered that so far as 
the spirit of Whistler's art goes, his Thames etch- 
ings show much the same kind of realism as ap- 
pears in The Last of Old Westminster and The Blue 
Wave, the same structural richness and frank scru- 
tiny of the external world, and in the etchings no 
accent but his own can be distinguished. As M. 
Benedite has pointed out, he had no national tradi- 
tions and school prejudices and therefore was not so 
deeply concerned as his companions with the question 
of masters and limiting allegiances. His appreciation 
of Rembrandt in his youth left, for example, hardly 
a trace on his student work. Although he copied 
effectively enough at the Louvre, as his copy of the 
Andromeda by Ingres, exhibited at the Keppel Gal- 
leries in New York, sufficiently testifies, he did not 
excel his companions as a copyist. Nor is he reported 
as having been an industrious student at Gleyre's. 
The point with him was not so much his industry in the 
ordinary sense of the word, it was his energy of pur- 
pose. He himself declared that what he began he did 
not leave, and having begun to be an artist he never 
for a moment was anything else. If not working in 
the studio or gallery he was working in the street or 
on the shore or the banks of the river, observing, 
making deductions and comparisons, training his 
eyes, storing his memory, and, by the constant taking 
of notes, giving to his hand that indispensable manual 
memory without which an artist is at loss to record 
his knowledge. Even at the first there was no osten- 



24 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

tation in his method. There was no bravura. He ap- 
plied his art to the average material about him with 
such simplicity that it is sometimes difficult to realize 
how steadily he must have bent his eyes upon the 
truth of nature to present it with such perfect propor- 
tion and in such a clear light. The visible world 
seemed to him interesting, not because it was like pic- 
tures he had seen of it, but because it was itself, and 
in itself pictorial. 

This gave to his work a vitality of utterance inde- 
pendent of his artistic vocabulary. If he chose, like 
Courbet, to use a forcible and slightly rough speech at 
one moment or another it was still his own emotion 
that he expressed with it. His mind was concentrated 
on nature as he saw it, not as anyone else saw it, and 
this concentration led naturally to the stately syn- 
thesis of his most expressive moods. The facts of life 
as they unrolled themselves before him remained in 
his memory. In his later years when he had long 
passed beyond whatever influence Courbet may have 
exercised upon him, he needed no reminder that the 
ocean was an element of might and of potential 
cruelty. One has only to observe any one of his paint- 
ings of the sea as they are reproduced in the London 
Catalogue or in the various books upon his art to see 
how even in poor translations of his beautiful tech- 
nique the quality of truth to the essential facts of na- 
ture persists. In the smallest drawings as in the 
largest canvas it is present. Mr. Howard Mansfield 
owns a bewitching water-colour bearing the title 



FRENCH ENVIRONMENT 25 

Green and Silver: The Photographer, which shows 
within a few square inches of space a lovely sky with 
sweeping clouds above an ocean the waves of which 
break on a beach where three or four figures are 
placed, one of them, the Photographer, busy with his 
instrument. The reality, the life of nature, is as per- 
fectly revealed in this as in The Blue Wave, The sky 
domes, the floating clouds have their characteristic 
texture, the ocean is a ponderable element with mass 
and power, the figures, tiny spots in the encompassing 
atmosphere, move and breathe. And thus it is with so 
many others that it is safe to assume it true of all. 

Therefore, it is not strange that Whistler did not 
lay undue, or perhaps, as M. Benedite thinks, not even 
due stress upon his debt to Courbet. He was not long 
in finding that his path did not lead him to an impasse 
of superficial realism which is what the word too often 
implies in Western art. The quintessential realism 
of the Orient was another matter; with this he was 
instinctively in sympathy, and seeking its appropriate 
expression in his personal accomplishment, he passed 
quite beyond the gates at which both the Realists and 
the later Impressionists stopped. 

As early as 1867 ne seems to have been in complete 
revolt against all that Courbet represented in art. In 
a letter of that year, written to Fantin, he inveighs 
against the education he has given himself, or rather 
the "terrible lack of education" which he feels. He 
assures his friend of the regret, rage and hatred with 
which he thinks of Courbet, not of the poor man him- 



26 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

self or even of his works, but of his realistic doctrines 
and that cry of "Vive la Nature!" prompted by the 
assurance of ignorance in defiance of all traditions. 
He declares that cry of "Nature!" to have been his 
great misfortune, leading him to paint what he saw 
before him complacent in the notion that fidelity to the 
obvious was the only thing needed. He depicts him- 
self with furious whimsy as having been "a black- 
' guard swelling with vanity at being able to show the 
painters his splendid gifts, gifts only requiring a 
severe training to make their possessor at the present 
moment a master and not a perverted pupil. " He 
mourns, furthermore, that he could not have had In- 
gres for a teacher, though liking his pictures only 
moderately. "I find many of his canvasses which we 
have looked at together," he says, "very questionable 
in style, not at all Greek as they are said to be, but 
very viciously French. I feel that there is a much 
greater distance to go, that there are much more beau- 
tiful things to do. But I repeat, had I but been his 
pupil! What a master he would have been! How 
sanely he would have guided us !" 

This letter M. Benedite interprets as marking the 
close of what he calls the "preparatory period" in 
Whistler's development. A further passage exalts 
lineal beauty and decries colour except as the accom- 
paniment of firm design, and it was, no doubt, with 
reference to this emphasis on the virtue of beautiful 
line that Ingres came into Whistler's mind as the 
master above all others who knew its resources and 



FRENCH ENVIRONMENT 27 

could impart his knowledge. M. Benedite finds that 
from this time (1867) onward Whistler became more 
austere and gave to the element of design in his work 
a more and more preponderant place, if by design is 
understood the expressive value of line, the arabesque, 
the placing and disposition of the subject. Such a 
separation of the "early" and the "late'" periods has 
in it, however, a precision of statement of which the 
baffling and flexible truth does not in this case wholly 
admit. Whistler's art was so integral that thus to 
divide it up even with the wise moderation of this 
learned critic, tends to banish from the mind the close 
web of consistency by which all the periods were held 
together. If we examine merely for the lineal pattern, 
the picture called The Music Room which followed 
At the Piano, with an interval of perhaps two years 
between them, and the portrait of Lady Meux in rose 
and gray which is placed by Mr. Way among the 
work of the early eighties, twenty years later, we see 
in both the same preoccupation with the placing of the 
figure and the refinement of the line. The standing 
figure in The Music Room, a girl in a riding habit, 
presents an arabesque, the curves of which flow 
naturally, without exaggeration and in perfect har- 
mony, balanced and offset by the straight lines of the 
curtains, the picture frames and the mantel shelf. In 
the Lady Meux the figure stands in a very similar po- 
sition but there are no accessories. Beyond the 
rippling edge of the light curtain meeting the dark 
floor, there are no lines of composition save in the 



28 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

figure itself. This is very clearly shown in Mr. Mans- 
field's pen and ink drawing of the subject which gives 
the outline with every other element abstracted. In 
regarding it one thinks instinctively of Whistler's 
own charming instruction as to the artist's method of 
using nature, when "in the long curve of the narrow 
leaf, corrected by the straight, tall stem, he learns how 
grace is wedded to dignity, how strength enhances 
sweetness, that elegance shall be the result." It is a 
wonderful piece of drawing, but the sensitiveness to 
decorative pattern and linear eloquence is hardly 
greater in it than in the earlier picture with its less 
perfectly discriminated values and less complete 
though more detailed statement. 

The letter to Fantin, then, would seem to signify 
a mood rather than a definite change of thought or 
aim, a mood more or less of discouragement and self- 
distrust that reappears frequently in the correspond- 
ence and lifts only as he sees himself realizing his own 
ideal. "Always the same story," he complains, "al- 
ways such painful and uncertain labour! I am so 
slow." It may be doubted if Ingres, had he laid upon 
him the detaining hand of classicism, would have has- 
tened his approach to his goal. The energetic and 
intelligent effort toward self-discipline kept him stead- 
ily critical of his processes and accomplishment, while 
leaving him free to seek the expression of form in his 
own way with silvery floating lights and quivering 
shadows that define without insistence, model without 
intrusion, and express nature and art equally. 




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FRENCH ENVIRONMENT 29 

His picture of The Music Room, like the piano pic- 
ture, was painted during one of his visits to his sister 
in England, and curiously mingles the charms of two 
nations. The subject is an interior with three figures, 
one the girl in a riding habit, the second a little girl 
reading, the third a lady of middle age, seated at a 
piano and seen only by the reflection of her figure in 
a mirror. The young "Amazon," as Whistler called 
her, gathering her long skirts into heavy folds, hold- 
ing her whip and glove lightly in her small hand, and 
smiling a little as she looks intently toward some scene 
or object out of the canvas, absorbs the attention. Her 
youth and suppleness and strength, the rich silhouette 
of her gown against the light background, her easy 
poise carrying the suggestion, not too strongly em- 
phasized, of arrested motion, place her among the 
most enticing visions of English girlhood. As the 
creation of an individuality we think of her as in the 
same category with Rose Jocelyn and Diana War- 
wick. The whole group in its pleasant environment 
has a kind of frank lovableness rare enough in any 
art and in modern art increasingly rare. The spirit 
of the subject, not merely its pictorial aspect, has been 
so completely grasped that we are greatly fortunate 
in having it a subject of intrinsic charm. The little 
girl, delightful Annie Haden again, dainty and fresh 
in her crisp white frock, dreams over her book without 
a trace of self-consciousness in attitude or expression. 
The woman's face seen in the mirror is delicate and 
tender, that of the Amazon of peculiar beauty and 



30 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

sweetness, and the flowered chintzes, the reading 
lamp, the elegant homliness of the softly lighted 
room, add to the effect of a painting affectionately 
wrought, a sense of the psychological value of the 
scene blending with that care for ingenious com- 
position and exquisite colour-harmonies already ap- 
parent as dominating characteristics of Whistler's 
art. 

It is a temptation to linger over this picture, to class 
it with the portrait of the artist's mother as an expres- 
sion of something so sweet and fine in his perception 
of life that it cannot be put with his other pictures but 
remains a perpetual benediction and perfect in its 
kind. Many others give a more purely aesthetic joy, 
but has Whistler ever revealed more intimately his 
conscience and his love of his craft? The very fact 
that it is less wisely executed than his later work, that 
the signs of labour are not so successfully banished 
from it, allows the patience of the workmanship and 
the love of the maker for what he has made more 
clearly to be felt. How purely English the scene is! 
Yet do we find such distinction, such reticence, such 
absence of even a breath of sentimentality in any Eng- 
lish picture of the time, or, for that matter, of any 
time? It is England touched by French reasonable- 
ness and American sentiment. It is England at once 
spiritualized and rendered scientifically. Never has 
her simplicity and unassumingness and pleasant hu- 
manity been shown with more impeccable taste, with 
more severity of conception. Subjectively and ob- 



FRENCH ENVIRONMENT 31 

jectively lovely, The Music Room is a priceless record 
of that fleeting instant in Whistler's career when, in 
sympathy with his friend Fantin, he painted domestic 
scenes. 

French influences as he gained in mastery of his 
medium, sank more or less into the background with 
him, but it is not too much, certainly, to grant to his 
French friends to own that their influence was all in 
the direction of developing in an orderly fashion the 
"beautiful qualities" as he frankly called them, which 
he had received from nature. If he resented Courbet 
what would have happened had he chanced to begin 
his career as a member of the Pre-Raphaelite Brother- 
hood! After eight years in Paris, with many jour- 
neys thence, to be sure, but with the Paris standards 
continually before him, and with the clear acute criti- 
cism of the informed French mind always at his 
service, he was at least protected, notwithstanding his 
own avowal to the contrary, from thinking himself 
wonderful before he was wonderful. 

In addition to his sojourns in England, he had been 
during these eight years in Alsace-Lorraine (in 1858) 
whence he brought some charming etchings that are 
grouped with the so-called French Set; at Perros- 
Guirec in Brittany (in 1861), at Guethary on the bor- 
derland of Spain (in 1862) and finally at Amsterdam 
(in 1863), a trip which he has commemorated by the 
etching of the Tolhuis. There he paid tribute to 
Rembrandt's Night Watch. He had dreamed also of 
a journey to Madrid, and crossing the frontier on one 



32 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

occasion, he wrote to Fantin with emotion, "Yester- 
day we were in Spain ; yes, my dear fellow, in Spain !" 
This pilgrimage, however, was not accomplished, and 
M. Benedite urges that the much discussed influence 
of Velasquez upon Whistler's art was only the in- 
fluence due to kinship of vision. 



ENGLISH ENVIRONMENT 



CHAPTER THIRD. 

English Environment. 

IN 1863, after returning from Amsterdam, Whistler 
decided to settle in London, putting an end to the 
frequent travels which involved the interruption 
of breaking in new models and the detaining adjust- 
ment to new environments and conditions. He estab- 
lished himself in Cheyne Walk in the near neighbour- 
hood of Rossetti, who, not yet a recluse, moved in a 
circle of interesting and prosperous people, deeply en- 
gaged with art. It is inconceivable that even the most 
independent mind could come into contact with Ros- 
setti's varied, complex, and magnetic personality and 
with that painting which carried the torch of Italian 
romance through the fogs of England, without feeling 
and showing the effect of such contact. Whistler did 
not escape, although he succumbed to a less degree 
than frequently is assumed by his critics. 

Rossetti was at the height of his accomplishment. 
His work was freed from the archaistic tendencies of 
his Pre-Raphaelite youth, it had richness and splen- 
dour and imaginative charm, and it was not yet in- 
fected by the morbid qualities that, most unjustly, have 
come to be considered its chief characteristics. 

Between i860 and 1865 he had produced, among 
an astonishing number of subjects, the water-colour 
Dr. Johnson at the Mitre, unique both in conception 
and treatment, the Joan of Arc, also unique in type 



36 



THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 



and unusually fine in tone and colour, the Lucretia 
Borgia, the first Regina Cordium, painted from his 
wife, and the original sepia study for a stained glass 
window, Sir Tristram and La Belle Yseult drinking 
the Love Potion, from which was painted the beauti- 
ful water-colour now belonging to an American col- 
lector. In 1863 he w T as painting the Beat a Beatrix 
and the sumptuous but inexpressive Helen of Troy, 
which elicited Mr. Swinburne's exuberant admira- 
tion. To that year also belongs the delicate little 
study of Ruth Herbert owned by Mr. Bancroft and 
more sensitive and tender than any work of Rossetti's 
that followed. A mere glance at the accessible repro- 
ductions of these pictures is sufficient to show their 
entire unlikeness to Whistler's art. Where Whistler 
was deft, clear and discerning, Rossetti was weighted 
with his idea, laborious in his execution, and too in- 
trospective to see his subject with impersonal distinc- 
tiveness. It was characteristic of Rossetti that he ap- 
plauded Keats's toast to the confusion of Newton "be- 
cause he destroyed the poetry of a rainbow by reduc- 
ing it to a prism." It would be difficult to imagine 
Whistler's saner attitude toward science thus ex- 
pressed. Rossetti agonized over his poetry but 
frankly owned that he found painting a more or less 
mechanical process. Whistler's continual joy in the 
exercise of his art and his unwearying research that 
leaves no trace of the mechanical in his methods are 
obvious in his slightest work. 

Nevertheless, before Whistler became Rossetti's 



ENGLISH ENVIRONMENT 37 

neighbour he had painted a picture that reflected Ros- 
setti's evocations of expressive physical beauty, and 
passive revery. The White Girl, which bears the date 
1862, differs completely from the "piano picture" and 
The Music Room both in conception and execution. 
It hung for a time in the Metropolitan Museum in 
New York, arousing very little interest on the part 
of the general public, according to the former author- 
ities of the Museum, but making an indelible impres- 
sion upon a few. It is a portrait of a soul struggling 
with early conditions, an ideal of beauty completely 
modern, yet steeped in the spirit of wonder and awe 
belonging to the world of old romance, the world in 
which Rossetti moved as a native and patriot but to 
which Whistler was a stranger. A young girl in a 
quaint high-waisted gown of low-toned white, is 
standing on a fur rug, in front of a white curtain. 
The face is self-conscious, subtle, enchanting, yet 
vaguely repelling; the figure has an indefinable frail- 
ity, a light, appealing girlishness and awkwardness of 
pose, the hint of moral and physical angularity never 
beyond Whistler's reach and never quite within Ros- 
setti's. The low-toned flesh, the dark red hair, the 
creamy and grayish-white draperies, the fur rug, the 
pattern of the carpet, suggest in the colour-scheme 
which they compose, Rossetti's Lady Lilith, painted 
two years later, and it is suggestive to remember that 
Rossetti prior to his acquaintance with Whistler, 
seems to have painted but one important picture — the 
very early Annunciation — which could be described 



38 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

as in the key of one colour, while afterward, he fre- 
quently made references to conscious efforts toward 
colour-harmonies, speaking of "a gradation of 
grays" in the Proserpine, a "lovely effect" of white 
drapery, white marble and white roses combined in 
The Roman Widow, and a "study of varied greens" 
in The Day Dream. Whistler's colour sense and Ros- 
setti's were so different, however, that even in the 
pictures where these come closest to one another it 
would be difficult to establish anything worthy the 
name of a resemblance, and Rossetti was even less 
than Whistler open to any outer influences as his ex- 
perience with Ruskin clearly shows. In its technique, 
The White Girl has a very distinct likeness to Ros- 
setti's characteristic brush work. We see in it almost 
none of Whistler's light, beautiful control of his pig- 
ment. A little tormented and hard, the paint is put on 
with a quite thick impasto, and is moulded rather 
than brushed into a texture that is not fully life-like 
in the flesh painting or supple in the robe. 

For M. Benedite, the picture has souvenirs of 
Millais, but it is impossible to think that the essentially 
commonplace gifts of Millais's mind gained even a 
momentary sway over Whistler's always distin- 
guished art. Millais, like all the Pre-Raphaelites, had 
passed under Rossetti's spell and had produced pic- 
tures that fitted into the mosaic of poetic imagery 
and mediaeval sentiment formed by the corporate 
brotherhood. Even Holman Hunt had not failed to 
contribute to the romantic spirit animating the little 




Symphony in White, No. 1. 

THE WHITE GIRL. 

Reproduced by kind permission of John G. Whittemcre, Esq. 



ENGLISH ENVIRONMENT 39 

group of innovators while Rossetti was still among 
them and of them. When they went their separate 
ways all trace of romance gradually vanished from 
their works, save in the case of Rossetti himself. In 
his art it was an essential, inalienable element, and its 
potency is seen in its transforming effect upon the 
more prosaic imaginations of his fellow painters of 
the Brotherhood. Whistler, whose imagination was 
infinitely poetic, could resist it better. The White 
Girl is the beginning and end of its influence upon 
him. Of Rossetti's companions none was so little 
subjugated by his imperious vision. Slightly as 
Courbet entered into the work of Whistler's youth, 
he is more harmoniously a part of it than Rossetti in 
The White Girl's spiritual drama; while Fantin has 
more in common with it to the last hour. 

Nevertheless this picture is a most interesting pro- 
duct of Whistler's brush. It shows how adequate 
was his intelligence to realize a purely psycho- 
logical idea. Although inspired from without, it is 
a true, not a false spirit of mysticism, enveloped in a 
very worldly beauty, that looks out of those question- 
ing ghost-seeing eyes, and is deepened by the droop 
of the rich young mouth, the slightly startled poise of 
the beautiful head on the long neck, the straight-hang- 
ing arms and slim sensitive hands. The mood is one 
of ecstasy. Deep, dim meanings seem to be half re- 
vealed, not with the opulent confidingness of the 
Italian Rossetti, but with the reticence, the racial shy- 
ness, of Whistler's transcendental countrymen. The 



40 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

Joan of Arc of Bastien-Lepage has almost the same 
look of bewildered exaltation, with the difference, 
that the French girl is listening to voices from an- 
other and superior world, while the girl in Whistler's 
picture listens to a voice of her own accent, 
speaking from her own individuality. No clear mes- 
sage can be read in the puzzle of her brow. She 
was painted from an Irish model, and if this was the 
artist's period of painting only what he saw before 
him, as he declares it was, he must have seen all the 
outward signs of the haunted Celtic soul. The delicacy 
with which he realized them constitutes the picture's 
special charm. It is not nearly so fine in arrangement 
or so subtle in its play of line as The Music Room. The 
forms are less designed to bring out the rhythm of 
the figure and even the colour, though rich and har- 
monious, is a little heavy. The idea has loaded the 
vehicle, but the idea is exquisite. Had Whistler con- 
tinued on this road, we feel the opportunity of the 
artist to communicate poignant secrets of the spirit 
would have been fulfilled as by no other modern. 

Nothing, however, could long have held him to this 
story-telling art; story-telling in the most appropriate 
and pictorial sense, but nevertheless intensely expres- 
sive and literary. Even while under Rossetti's shadow 
he could not give to his picture a title revealing any- 
thing but the painter's point of view. He had not 
painted an Undine or a Psyche or Eurydice or Bea- 
trice; he had painted a girl in w T hite against a white 
background, a very difficult feat to accomplish sue- 



ENGLISH ENVIRONMENT 41 

cessfully, and nothing could be better than to call her 
The White Girl thus indicating to the public the prob- 
lem with which he as a painter was concerned. What 
the public wished to read in her face of her past or her 
future or of the fears infesting her soul, was their 
affair ; it was his affair to place tone against tone and 
colour against colour in a way to achieve a true rela- 
tion, and he was free to challenge the observer on that 
ground alone. 

It is hardly necessary to recall the fact that this was 
not the temper of the English painters in 1862 or 
long after, and M. Duret goes so far as to attribute 
to the titles chosen by Whistler for his pictures, par- 
ticularly the musical titles which he later adopted, 
much of the misunderstanding that presently arose 
with his English public. The terms "harmonies," 
"symphonies," "nocturnes," were not at first used by 
him even for the pictures to which they were most ap- 
propriate, but after he had thought of them he seems 
to have liked them so well that he affixed them to many 
of these as secondary titles or even as primary titles 
giving the original name the secondary place. Thus 
The White Girl was Symphony in White Number 1 
and The Music Room became Symphony in Green and 
Rose. The peculiar fitness of such a terminology to 
Whistler's tone compositions no longer needs explana- 
tion, but it is interesting to note in M. Benedite's refer- 
ences to the melomania of Fantin-Latour and his par- 
ticular circle and the inevitable discussions of the laws 
of music in which it is reasonable to suppose that 



42 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

Whistler joined, the suggestion of a closer study on 
his part of the analogy between accords of sound and 
accords of colour than the mere choice of a musical 
nomenclature would indicate. How far Whistler went 
in his investigations; how far he founded himself on 
science in applying the principles of music to his har- 
monic arrangements; how far he joined the Impres- 
sionists in their study of Chevreul and Rood and their 
analysis of light, must be a matter of conjecture. He 
himself felt that he plunged very deeply into the whole 
matter, writing as late as 1871 that he believed he had 
made progress at least in the direction of the science 
of colour, that he had almost entirely sounded it and 
reduced it to a system. In a somewhat earlier letter 
to Fantin (1868) quoted by M. Benedite, he goes 
more explicitly into his theories of colour arrange- 
ment with reference to some flower-painting upon 
which Fantin has asked his criticism. 

"First," he says, "it seems to me that, given the can- 
vas, the colours ought to be, so to speak, embroidered 
thereupon, that is to say the same colour should re- 
appear continually here and there, like one thread of 
an embroidery, and thus with the others, to a greater 
or less degree, according to their importance, the 
whole forming in this way a harmonious pat- 
tern. . . . Behold the Japanese . . . how 
well they understand this. It is never contrast that 
they seek, but, on the contrary, repetition." He then 
points his moral in the friendliest way with one of 
Fantin's studies: 




Green and Blue. 

"THE DANCER. 

(Water-Colour.) 

Reproduced by kind permission of R. A. Canfield, Esq. 



ENGLISH ENVIRONMENT 43 

"In your second canvas the whole is first of all a 
charming pattern, and as for the rest, there is no one 
who could render it like yourself. Faith, how perfect 
it is ! — the background is repeated in the bouquet and 
the table climbs up through the ruddy grapes and is 
found again in the similar tones among the flowers! 
The reds of the fruits are repeated in several places 
and the green grapes— how delicate and fine in colour 
they are! — seek other greens in the leaves. It is a 
ravishing pattern and delicious in colour !" 

It requires little discernment to find in his own 
works the application, firmly and clearly made, of this 
colour-theory. An especially delightful example of 
a rich and intricate yet delicate colour scheme display- 
ing the principle of repetition in the fullest degree, yet 
escaping entirely the dryness of a formula, is found in 
a little pastel owned by Mr. Mansfield and called The 
Japanese Dress. It is a full length drawing of a girl 
in the Japanese garb indicated by the title. She is 
standing, holding a Japanese umbrella back of her 
head with her right hand, and with her left hand she 
holds up the outer robe of her gorgeous raiment. The 
principal colours might be described as pink, blue, red 
and yellow but the complete originality of their effect 
depends upon the certain taste and knowledge by 
which their action upon each other has been foreseen 
by the artist and a crude statement of their separated 
qualities fails entirely to suggest the picture. The out- 
line is in black on brown paper. The colours of the 
umbrella are deep orange-yellow, pale blue and white. 



44 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

There are touches of yellow on the cheek and chin, 
the hair is yellow, and the outer robe is lined with the 
orange-colour of the umbrella. The cap is of flesh 
colour with a band of peacock blue and has crimson 
and pink balls hanging at the left. The under-robe 
is of dark gray-blue with touches of bright rose and 
the light blue of the umbrella in the pattern. Beneath 
this is seen a white skirt that repeats the white of the 
umbrella. The pattern of the outer robe is in the pea- 
cock blue and flesh-colour of the cap with flecks of the 
light blue. The butterfly is a strong note of peacock 
blue, the background is flesh-colour merely brushing 
the surface of the brown paper, and the sash is of bril- 
liant vermilion. This web of interlaced colours with 
its alternate exciting and soothing of the optic nerves, 
so far from producing an appearance of motley, of 
"bariolage" to use an expressive Gallicism, blends in 
a tone as homogeneous as the flushed gray of the mists 
at dawn. Owing to Whistler's choice of a low key 
even where the colours seem to be light and gay, it 
has none of the sparkle of the Impressionist colour- 
schemes, but, on the contrary, is distinctly sober in 
effect. 

A much simpler pastel also belonging to Mr. Mans- 
field, illustrates the same principle within a more lim- 
ited arrangement.. It represents a little girl (prob- 
ably Florence Leyland) with fair hair, bending over 
a book. The outline again is in black on the brown 
paper used in order to avoid a ground that required 
killing, which, he said, was a waste of time and a 



ENGLISH ENVIRONMENT 45 

handicap. (*) The contrast between this black line 
and the touches within it of fresh pale colour in itself 
conveys a prompt aesthetic pleasure. At first glance 
the colour seems to be little more than the pale yellow 
of the hair falling over the face and the rose-colour 
of the sash. Upon closer examination it is seen that 
the rose of the sash has been repeated in a much 
lighter and slightly yellower tint in the stenographic- 
ally indicated ruffles of the dress and that under this 
delicate rosiness of tone plays a faint blue ; a stronger 
note of the blue emphasizes the sleeve and it enters 
also into the white of the cuff increasing its cold bril- 
liancy. The rosy tone appears again with modifica- 
tion in the mere suggestion of flesh-colour on the 
hand. In these simple and few elements we have the 
picture. The colours are not only present but are 
present exactly in their relative importance and value, 
each playing accurately the part assigned to it in the 
charming dim drama, the whole uniting like the soft 
humming of a chorus in subdued rehearsal. 

Such undisguised examples of the scientific combi- 
nation of colours and tones (scientific at least in the 
sense that the effect is known and calculated upon 
from the first) are precious both in themselves and 
from the clear light they throw upon the deliberation 
of the artist's plan. They show him neither impetu- 
ous nor vague, but reflective and definite, bringing to 



C) "He never worked upon a ground that required killing. That was 
a waste of time, he said, and a handicap : one could not procure clean 
crisp tones — it was necessary to go over them so many times." "Whist- 
ler as I Knew Him" by Mortimer Menpes, p. 75. 



46 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

bear upon these little works that in many instances 
would seem to the eyes of the inattentive observer the 
merest sketches, the acuteness and force of a discip- 
lined intelligence each act of which in the domain of 
art had its logical explanation. It is not always easy 
to distinguish the underlying plan of his colour com- 
binations in such works as the Nocturnes for ex- 
ample, where the values are close and the tone mys- 
terious to the last degree, but it is perfectly safe to 
assume that he never worked from a haphazard or 
an unstudied palette. 

To return to The White Girl, this composition of a 
single figure placed on a long narrow canvas, without 
accessories and with a symphonic colour arrangement 
heralds the larger canvases of a much later period, 
and thus, despite its suggestions of Rossetti, is an 
essentially original work, marking indeed a distinct 
step toward the realization of a strictly personal ideal. 

For its author it appears to have been of rather un- 
usual interest. M. Benedite relates that it plays an 
important part in his correspondence where he shows 
much concern for its exhibition and its effect upon 
the public. He sent it to the Salon of 1863 with en- 
tire confidence in its rejection, arranging with Fantin 
to have it placed elsewhere in such case. It was, how- 
ever, a fortunate year for the rejected ones. Their 
numbers were many and the outcry against the de- 
cisions of the Beaux-Arts administration was great. 
The Emperor, Napoleon III, intervened, and upon 
his order the unsuccessful artists were permitted to 




Symphony in White, No. 2. 

THE LITTLE WHITE GIRL. 



ENGLISH ENVIRONMENT 47 

show their canvases to the public in a certain part of 
the same building in which the official Salon was held. 
This little exhibition was called the Salon des Refuses 
and has become famous in the history of French art. 
It contained, in addition to Whistler's White Girl, 
works by Bracquemond, Cals, Cazin, Chintreuil, 
Fantin-Latour, Harpignies, Jongkind, Jean-Paul 
Laurens, Legros, Manet, Pissarro, and Monet. 
Whistler found the whole affair, the official repulse 
and the Emperor's decision, most inspiriting. "It 
is charming," he wrote to Fantin from Amster- 
dam, "it is charming for us — this matter of the exhi- 
bition of the Refuses!" 

The White Girl proved the special feature of the ex- 
hibition, and the critics were almost unanimous in dis- 
covering its psychological charm, a charm that in 
the case of M. Benedite has been somewhat dissi- 
pated by time. He notes that the very characteristics 
which seemed so novel and interesting forty years 
ago, the unusual shape of the canvas, the placing of 
the figure in the background of the picture, the rela- 
tions of the tones, have been so often repeated in 
recent art that they no longer are surprising, and he 
finds himself frankly rather bored by "that ecstatic 
personage with the great beryl-tinted eyes, who 
pauses, flower in hand, with the aspect of a ghost and 
the wild regard of an Ophelia, affecting vague preten- 
sions to a symbolic meaning." 

Of these white schemes Whistler painted several, of 
which two, at least, are well-known to the public. The 



48 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

second is called The Little White Girl: Symphony in 
White Number 2, and represents the same charming 
model, standing with one arm resting on a mantel- 
shelf above which is a mirror in which her face is re- 
flected. Her right arm is hanging at her side and she 
holds a Japanese fan in her hand. A Japanese vase is 
on the mantel and a spray of azalea is seen in the lower 
right hand corner, breaking unexpectedly in upon the 
diagonal of the composition. This picture was ex- 
hibited at the Royal Academy of 1865 an ^ bore upon 
its frame a poem (after the familiar fashion of Ros- 
setti) written by Mr. Swinburne and emphasizing the 
absence of any message in the young face depicted. 
The last verse runs : 

I cannot tell what pleasures 

Or what pains were, 

What pale new loves and treasures 

New years will bear, 

What beam will fall, what shower, 

With grief or joy for dower, 

But one thing knows the flower, the flower is fair. 

Symphony in White, Number 3, has no other title 
and is dated 1867. The composition comprises two 
figures, one half-lying, half-sitting, on a divan, the 
other sitting on the floor at the foot of the divan with 
one arm stretched over it. 

With this third symphony certain studies of nude 
and half draped figures are frequently associated by 
Whistler's critics as sharing its suggestions of classic 
inspiration, which, M. Benedite thinks, came to 
Whistler largely by the way of the English painter 



ENGLISH ENVIRONMENT 49 

Albert Moore, whose work, of a pseudo-Greek man- 
ner, he is said to have admired, but with which his own 
has nothing more than an inspiration in common. 

Whatever the source of their first conception may 
have been, these drawings and paintings, made per- 
haps as preliminary studies for pictures, perhaps as 
pictures in themselves, for they need nothing added to 
complete them, reveal a side of Whistler's art that 
would be in comparative obscurity without them. We 
have his expression of the human form, often quite 
freed from the glamour of his colour, and rendered 
only with a black chalk outline, or again fully modelled 
in colour and with a degree of relief that would sur- 
prise an observer familiar only with The White Girl 
or The Music Room. They emphasize in him the 
qualities that most often have been denied him, con- 
cern for tactile values, to use Mr. Berenson's con- 
venient phrase, and close attention to construction. 
A number of them represent the model lying on a 
couch, the figure half turned, giving the twist of the 
waist so easy to caricature if the precise value of the 
fold in the flesh has not been felt or if the outline has 
the least suspicion of rigidity. Nothing could be far- 
ther from such rigidity than these supple little figures, 
so instinct with the movement of life that were they 
to change their position before your eyes you would 
hardly be more astonished than the Japanese artist 
who complacently watched his men and women walk 
out of his picture. 

Others are standing with truly Greek simplicity of 



50 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

pose, embraced in a large, sweeping outline within 
which the sensitive contours of their lovely forms be- 
tray the same quickness of life and subtlety of model- 
ling. These also could move, could turn and walk and 
smile and speak. They are, moreover, creatures of a 
big mould though so dainty in their lightness of poise 
and grace of proportion. They have the deep chests 
and rounded limbs of the ancient Aphrodites and 
Ceres. Where they are slender and young as in the 
instance of the exquisite water-colour entitled The 
Forget-Me-Not (owned by Mr. Mansfield) they are 
still strong and normal in type with none of the bony 
frailness of youth, with, on the contrary, a richness of 
outline that requires the utmost refinement of realiza- 
tion to endow with that elegance characteristic of 
Whistler's representations of the human form. 

One of the nudes (owned in America) has been on 
exhibition on three occasions at least, at the Compara- 
tive Exhibition, held in New York in 1904, at the Bos- 
ton Exhibition of Whistler's works and at the Penn- 
sylvania Academy Exhibition in 1906. This is The 
Little Blue and Gold Girl, a painting in which both 
colour and form have an arresting force and a myster- 
ious beauty that make it one of the most delightful of 
his works. The figure of the girl ivory-tinted with 
warm shadows, is relieved against a blue drapery 
that pales into ashen tones and deepens into pur- 
ples. Back of the figure is a window through 
which is seen a river-view wrapped in blue mists. 
A gray vase of beautiful proportions is at the 




DRAPED FIGURE STANDING. 
(Pastel.) 

Reproduced for the first time by kind permission of Howard Mansfield, Esq. 



ENGLISH ENVIRONMENT 51 

right of the picture and holds a spray of clem- 
atis. The girl's reddish hair is gathered into a yellow 
kerchief with a blue band. Nothing could exceed the 
firmness and lightness of the little creature's poise 
upon her slim legs, or the grace with which she lifts 
her round long arms. The rhythm and vitality of her 
contours show the highest sensibility to the suppleness 
of the human body and to its beauty of structure. It 
is a modern form and by no means a classically per- 
fect one but it is young, it has grace, it is alive, and 
these facts are stated in the picture with explicit nota- 
tion of all its refined and poetic aspects. The bloom 
of an exquisite adjustment of values is over it. It 
stands as the full expression of Whistler's study of the 
nude. 

The pastels give, however, a better impression of 
how closely he has observed the significant modelling 
of the human figure for the reason that in these he 
frequently uses only a single touch of the chalk to 
express the roundness of a limb, the projection of a 
shoulder or back, the plane of a chest. He isolates 
the few indications of light and shade necessary to 
make us know that his figures have backs when you 
see their faces, as Fromentin said was true of the 
drawings of Franz Hals, and we realize the precise 
muscular stress called out by their movements and 
gestures. One of Mr. Mansfield's drawings repre- 
sents a woman of great nobility of form, whose classic 
drapery does not disguise her classic proportions, and 
who stands leaning with one arm resting on a shelf or 



52 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

ledge. The effect is rendered by the slightest means, 
but the disposition of the weight, the swell of the arm 
supporting the pressure of the body, the relaxation 
of the other arm, the capacity of the whole strong, 
buoyant figure to move with energy and lightness, are 
perfectly felt. These are the facts assential to our 
enjoyment and they are not obscured by any irrelev- 
ances. They keep alive the spirit in which ancient art 
realized the nude by their consistent rejection of all 
but its life-enhancing and aesthetic attributes. They 
touch idealism on the side of this rejection, but they 
have all that is artistically important in the real. 

Through them we seem to see the artist's own poetic 
vision of his beautiful art in concrete form as "a god- 
dess of dainty thought — reticent of habit, abjuring all 
obtrusiveness, purposing in no way to better others." 
Without the due appreciation of them it is impossible 
to do justice to Whistler's interests in the things which 
have interested all great artists. The qualities per- 
sonal to him have been naturally the qualities most 
stimulating to his critics but they are wholly signifi- 
cant only in their connection with the qualities that 
unite him to the artists of the past. Detached from 
these they suggest an eccentricity not to be found in 
his art even at the moments of its greatest originality. 

One of these moments is, curiously, that of his frank 
representation of the art of the farthest East. 



THE ENTRANCE OF JAPAN 



CHAPTER FOURTH. 

The Entrance of Japan. 

IN 1862, according to the date fixed by M. Chesnau, 
a little shop was opened in Paris on the Rue de 
Rivoli, by a man and his wife who had lived in 
Japan and who had brought back with them embroid- 
eries, lacquers, prints and porcelains which they of- 
fered for sale. 

The way to their success had been prepared by the 
enthusiasm of the French etcher, Felix Bracquemond, 
who in 1856, had discovered a part of Hokusai's 
Mangwa in the hands of Delatre, the printer of etch- 
ings to whom it had come incidentally wrapped about 
some porcelains, but the charm of its wonderful little 
drawings was promptly felt by him and Bracquemond 
did not succeed in persuading him to part with it. 
Later, however, Bracquemond found it in the hands 
of the wood-engraver, Lavieille, from whom he ob- 
tained it by giving in exchange for it the rare and 
curious volume on wood-engraving by Papillon which 
Lavieille on his side coveted. This incident shows 
with what power the Japanese master's "drawing as 
it comes spontaneously'' appealed to the Western stu- 
dent of pictorial realities. Japanese art, especially the 
art of the prints, was practically unknown in France 
at this time. The passion for lacquers, porcelains, 
jades and bronzes marking the reign of Louis XIV, 
had died out, leaving many precious objects in the col- 



56 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

lections of the great amateurs, but little or no trace 
upon the public taste. When Bracquemond had ac- 
quired his volume of the Mangwa, therefore, he felt 
that he held the key to a new world, and he passed it 
about among the artists of his acquaintance with an 
enthusiasm which they were not slow to share. 

Thus the opening of M. de Soye's "Porte Chinoise" 
was the signal for an infatuation for its wares that in- 
vaded the studios, to quote M. Chesnau, "like a flame 
running along a powder trail." Tissot, Manet, Fan- 
tin-Latour, Degas, Carolus Duran, Monet, Solon, 
Jacquemart, Barbedienne, Christofle, Falize, artists 
and artist-artisans, trooped to the little shop and 
exulted over the beauty and novelty of the objects 
found there with an emotion very different from that 
of the mere seeker after new things. Each recog- 
nised in the decorative qualities of the prints, the 
colour and glaze of the porcelains, the patines of the 
bronzes, a source of inspiration for his own work, and 
each took away with him suggestions which he em- 
bodied in his technique. 

Whistler, M. Benedite tells us, was of the group and 
not the least ardent. He bought stuffs and porcelains 
for his studio, but while he at once made use of an oc- 
casional vase or fan or rug in the composition of his 
pictures, it was not until after he had taken up his 
residence in London that he produced the series of so- 
called Japanese pictures which have become famous 
in his art. It is difficult to fix the chronology of any 
but his dated works and it is impossible to be sure that 




DIE LANGE LEIZEN, OF THE SIX MARKS. 



Reproduced by kind permission of John G. Johnson, Esq., Fhila. 



THE ENTRANCE OF JAPAN 57 

a dated picture is the first of its kind without a com- 
plete and authentic record of his art to serve as a 
guide. No such record is accessible at the present 
time, but M. Benedite considers Die Lange Leizen, 
of the Six Marks the first of this series. It must have 
been begun either late in 1863 or ver y early in 1864, as 
in January of the latter year Whistler writes to Fan- 
tin of Die Lange Leizen, telling him that it is filled 
with "superb porcelains'" from his collection, is good 
in arrangement and colour and represents a dealer in 
porcelains, a Chinese girl engaged in painting a 
pot-O 

This picture, which now belongs to Mr. John G. 
Johnson, of Philadelphia, is peculiarly interesting as 
showing how completely Whistler passed from the 
psychological mood of the first Symphony in White to 
the purely decorative mood appropriate to his new 
subject. 

The colour scheme is in the subdued key of The 
Japanese Dress already described. There is not one 
shrill note. The primitive colours are present suffi- 
ciently to give fullness and resonance to the harmony, 
but the general tone is soft and grave, and the ex- 
quisite surface is to the ordinary oil-painting what the 
true Japanese lacquer is to the lacquer of commerce. 
The richness of the effect is composed of many ele- 
ments making an intricate but unconfused pattern in 
which the local colours and contrasted surfaces play 
into a unity of impression without losing their indi- 

C) The model was Miss Leyland, 



58 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

vidual clearness of shape and texture. The superb 
porcelain jar by the girl's side has the brilliancy of 
porcelain and the pattern on it is reproduced with as 
much precision as the artist used in his illustrations 
for Sir Henry Thompson's catalogue of Nankin por- 
celains made many years later. The other vases and 
the cup and platter are drawn with equal care the pat- 
tern on each having its special character scrupulously 
defined. The girl wears a gray robe over a dark blue 
skirt. Its decoration consists of pale red bands and 
an embroidered floral pattern in red with spots of 
green and blue, a pattern so delicately and precisely 
indicated that it might serve as an embroiderer's 
model. The red and green pattern of the rug on the 
floor is also clearly defined. A darker red is in the 
table cover and the yellow of the table at the left and 
the background above it has a golden quality. There 
is no strong modelling by light and shade, although 
the forms of the girl's handsome little face are by no 
means cursorily suggested and her figure is round 
and supple under its long draperies. The delicious 
rhythmic line that runs from her head to her feet and 
the flowing brushwork emphasize the sense of tran- 
quillity produced by the quiet tone and softly polished 
surface. This inner harmony of design and colour 
penetrating the apparently diverse and separated 
items in the picture speaks more eloquently of Whist- 
ler's instinctive sympathy with Japanese ideals in art 
than any of its incidental features. 

The picture, Rose and Silver: La Prineesse du Pays 



THE ENTRANCE OF JAPAN 59 

de la Porcelaine, dated 1864, has a more exclusively 
decorative aspect and brings into the mind a composite 
vision of Utamaro and Yeisen and Shunsen. In this 
superb canvas Whistler's brush plays with ease and 
fervour performing miracles in the way of indicating 
widely diverse textures and carrying the lightest 
films of paint with the airiest suggestions. The prin- 
cess stands in a sinuous pose emphasized by the sweep- 
ing lines of her robe, against the background of a tall 
folding screen, an iridescent wonderful figure, painted 
with a gaiety and delicacy, a daring and vivacity, that 
would overwhelm an observer familiar only with 
Whistler's portraits of the sombre backgrounds 
and restricted range of colour. The lovely gray 
of the under-robe, the poppy-red sash with its 
lines of gold, the pale purple drapery back of 
the figure with its impalpable veil of shimmering 
light; the gray tone, filled with air, against which 
the dark head is relieved, the creamy pallor of 
the skin, the warm transparent shadow of the 
hair upon the forehead, the soft surface of the 
pottery jar, all combine in an effect of splendour, 
curiously subdued to a matchless refinement of tone 

The model for the Princess was Christine Spartali, 
a younger sister of the Marie Spartali (Mrs. Still- 
man) who posed for Rossetti's Fiammetta. William 
Rossetti, speaking of her in connection with her sister, 
says, "she also was a beauty, but in a way less sym- 
pathetic to Rossetti who did not, I think, ever draw 
from her." Her beauty, strange and penetrating, ap- 



60 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

pears in the Princess, but it is odd to think of it as not 
appealing to Rossetti, for as Whistler painted her, 
she resembles the Proserpine and Pandora painted by 
Rossetti from Mrs. Morris, rather more than she re- 
sembles the Fiammetta or the figure in Dante's dream 
which were painted from her sister. The deep brood- 
ing eyes, the dusky hair, the ripe lips and long neck, 
inevitably bring to mind the distinguished model of 
Rossetti's later pictures and from this superficial re- 
semblance has grown the impression that La Prin- 
cesse also shows Rossetti's influence, but M. Duret 
rightly argues that it does not. No one familiar with 
Rossetti's painting could see in this brilliant example 
of technical dexterity any sign of him. The line alone, 
vibrating and losing and finding itself in its swift 
flow is enough to make the essential unlikeness mani- 
fest, but there is no trait or touch to suggest an ex- 
ternal or inner likeness. 

Two other important pictures of this Japanese 
series are Caprice in Purple and Gold: The Golden 
Screen (1864) and Variations in Flesh Colour 
and Green: The Balcony (1867). The latter rep- 
resents four women on a balcony with the 
the Thames beyond. The women are dressed in Jap- 
anese costumes but there is no attempt to realize a 
typical Japanese scene. The title Variations in Flesh 
Colour and Green indicates the colour scheme so far 
as Whistler's colour can be indicated by a title — the 
flesh colour is different from other flesh colours, the 
green is a kind of robin's egg. 



THE ENTRANCE OF JAPAN 61 

These were direct results of Whistler's admira- 
tion for the art of Japan. The colours are entrancing, 
the planning of the spaces and accents is most beau- 
tiful and interesting, the light and shade and model- 
ling are kept decoratively subordinate, all that is lack- 
ing to make the observer feel himself in the presence 
of the purest art is a deep personal sentiment. "In 
the majority of cases/' writes the Japanese critic Sei- 
ichi Taki, "what is called 'a poetic sentiment' in art is 
determined to be such by some point of hackneyed tra- 
dition, be it historical or literary, and often it has been 
so clumsily expressed that it is entirely out of harmony 
with the very ideas which the artist intends to portray. 
Such sentiments cannot but exert conventional effects, 
sometimes ending in meaningless allegories. Such 
was not the case with Sessu, for by his masterly touch 
the most commonplace scene was enlivened with an 
enthralling sentiment which insensibly makes the be- 
holder a captive to the poetic charms of his art." 
This sentiment which Sei-ichi Taki attributes to his 
great master, less clearly felt in the "Chinoiseries" 
above referred to, invests Whistler's nocturnes with 
poetic charm. 

In these, in his river-views and in many of his paint- 
ings of the sea, he reached a point of expression which 
a Japanese critic would probably have felt was the 
highest to which he could aspire. He reached the 
point, that is, of gathering all his impressions and 
memories of the beauty of a scene into a synthetic 
statement of its essential reality, eliminating all that 



62 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

was trivial or extraneous. He represented in these 
dusky nights and veiled mornings the appearance of 
reality and not the facts of science. He filled them 
with the "painter's poetry" of which he speaks in his 
famous lecture, and this painter's poetry he tells us is 
"the amazing invention, that shall have put form and 
colour into such perfect harmony, that exquisiteness 
is the result . . . the nobility of thought that 
shall have given the artist's dignity to the whole." 
A Japanese painter might have spoken just these 
words. This mood in which the painting of nature 
becomes a matter of suggestion, of simplification, of 
obedience to aesthetic laws rather than imitation or 
even close representation of any but the largest truths, 
we find in those few examples that have reached us of 
Japanese art in its higher forms. His sensitiveness 
to the characteristic sentiment of a scene forms a 
closer link between Whistler's art and that of the 
Japanese great masters than even the much-discussed 
decorative quality of his arabesques and colour 
schemes and his sympathetic rendering of this senti- 
ment with the utmost restraint and economy of means 
is in the true Japanese tradition so far as we can trace 
it. The Nocturne in Green and Gold, recently ac- 
quired by the Metropolitan Museum, exhibits to the 
fullest degree his power not only to select from nature 
the elements of art but to make a beautiful notation 
of an intrinsically beautiful fact. The scene is Cre- 
morne Gardens at night, with coloured lights and 
gaily dressed people dancing or gathered in groups 



THE ENTRANCE OF JAPAN 63 

at little tables. An illuminated kiosk is at the right 
of the picture, and waiters in red coats are here and 
there in the foreground. It does not require especial 
energy of imagination to summon to the mind an im- 
pression of some not unlike scene, and gather from it 
suggestions of the beauty held in the vaporous dark- 
ness of sky and foliage, the contrasting brilliancy of 
fireworks and lanterns, and the strange mingling of 
the night's austerity and the crisp bright gaiety of the 
human crowd. All this he has conveyed by means of 
a design which subtly extracts the dominant quality 
that pervades the whole and appeals to our imagina- 
tion. We have only to follow the pattern made with 
infinitely delicate and close values, by the masses of 
the trees against the luminous dusky blue of the sky 
and the rippling line of varying light and colour that 
runs along the populous garden to realize how en- 
tirely the mystery of that visionary beauty is sup- 
ported by a knowledge of the fundamental principles 
of art and how subtly he interpreted the doctrine of 
Ingres, that "even smoke should be expressed in line/' 
An accident to the canvas also serves the purpose of 
the student curious as to the character of Whistler's 
colour. A little break that has been repaired has 
necessitated retouching in one spot, and the tone used 
contains a certain amount of purple obtained by the 
mixture of red and blue pigment. In ordinary light 
it is almost indistinguishable except as a spot from 
which the atmosphere seems suddenly to have dropped 
out, but seen from one standpoint it emphasizes in the 



64 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

surrounding gray dusk the absence of the red and blue 
so often combined to express darkness in pictures of 
night. There could hardly be a better object lesson 
for the practical worker, in the value of a neutral tint 
without definite colour in which colour is called out 
by the opposition of the orange, or rose, or yellow, 
which determines the character of the colour design. 
This is what the fireworks and the little lanterns and 
the light green of the little booth near the kiosk mean 
to the picture; they fill the gray atmosphere with the 
colour of the night. 

Another nocturne of the Gardens and fireworks 
belongs to Mrs. Samuel Untermyer of New York. It 
is called Nocturne in Black and Gold: The Falling 
Rocket, and is a much more dramatic arrangement. 
In the Metropolitan's Nocturne the general quiet tone 
of the picture is hardly interrupted by the flecks of 
brilliant colour. In Mrs. Untermyer's a concentrated 
blaze of light fills the scene with splendour and there 
is a double line of rising and falling fire. Here again 
is the reproduction of a beautiful visual image by the 
abstract means familiar in Japanese art and only re- 
cently familiar in Western art. The dark masses of 
blackish gray foliage, the dusky blue sky, the smoke 
irradiated against it and cooling and graying in 
colour as it rises, the yellowish gray foreground, make 
a pattern of line and colour lovely in itself, that would 
still be lovely if the orange and yellow of the fireworks 
were stains of blood and carnage, if the smoke rose 
from a battle-ground, if the dark hulks of the trees 




Nocturne in Black and Gold. 
THE FALLING ROCKET. 



Reproduced by kind permission of Mrs. Samuel Untermyer. 



THE ENTRANCE OF JAPAN 65 

were heaps of slain. The beauty is absolutely inde- 
pendent of the subject and the sentiment of the scene 
is strictly the pictorial sentiment. The exclusive pro- 
priety of this sentiment in works of art is what Whist- 
ler strove to impress upon his hearers in his "Ten 
O'Clock," and what Ruskin was instinctively com- 
batting when he called the Nocturne in Black and Gold 
"a pot of paint flung in the public's face." 

In certain of his pictures Whistler introduced an 
obviously Japanese device, a branch of leaves or blos- 
soms that is sharply cut off by the frame, as the 
azaleas in The Little White Girl, and the spray of 
leafage silhouetted against the water in one of the 
nocturnes "in blue and silver," and this not always 
fortunate detail has many times been mentioned as a 
proof of his affinities with the Japanese. In order to 
realize how little this accidental arrangement has to 
do with the truly Japanese spirit of a composition it 
is only necessary to observe the pictures by Rossetti 
in which a part of a rose-bush strays irresponsibly 
into the composition, or the decorative cherry-branch 
in Lotto's Christ Taking Leave of His Mother, to 
name but two masters of many who have served them- 
selves with a similar decorative idea. One swallow is 
far more adequate to make a summer than one arti- 
ficial feature to make a Japanese picture. It is not, 
perhaps, putting it too strongly to say that Whistler 
was never so thoroughly in harmony with the higher 
Japanese ideals as when nothing in his picture directly 
suggests them, The exquisite nocturne (the West- 



66 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

minster) owned by Mr. Johnson, is Japan itself passed 
through the artist's own sensitive personality. The 
picture is little but air and light. There are pale tones 
of turquoise blue and a gray shadow resting on the 
land, two squares of yellow light in the tower and a re- 
flection in the water at the right. Out of these elements 
he has made the transparent dusk and the pale sum- 
mer heavens. What classic model of the Middle 
Kingdom might he not have followed, hand in hand 
with a Japanese disciple, to gain this "sublimity of 
tone" this "far-off effect," this "calm and reposeful 
expression," this organic relation between the parts 
that together constitute for the Eastern world the soul 
and spirit of landscape art.(') 

His touch also in those of the nocturnes that are 
known to me is precisely what one would imagine the 
Japanese touch to have become had it been developed 
in the medium of oil-colour, "feathery light" as Mr. 
Cox happily calls it. and of a gentleness that heightens 
the effect of tranquility. This subtle and complete 
harmony of the touch with the colour-scheme and the 
tenderness of the hour, is it typical of any race so 
much as of the Japanese? If it is not, we are safe 
in assuming that Whistler's art was not merely ex- 
ternally affected, as was the art of Bracquemond, for 
example, by his introduction to the applied arts of 
Japan, but was similar in essence to the pictorial art 
of such painters as Kano Motonobu and Sesshu, 



O See The Kokka No. 184 ("Characteristics of Japanese Painting") 
and No. 191 ("On Chinese Landscape Painting"). 



THE ENTRANCE OF JAPAN 67 

whose work we are only just now beginning to know 
and care for, and to whose artistic race Whistler be- 
longed in the sense that he himself recognised when he 
declared "there is no nationality in art." 



CHARACTERISATIONS 



CHAPTER FIFTH. 

Characterisations. 

DURING the latter half of Whistler's life he 
painted many portraits and made many rec- 
ords of character that were in the nature of 
portraits, though not identified as such. In these his 
art was put to the final test. Could he read the poetry 
of human nature as unerringly as he read the poetry 
of the sky and air ? Did he live up to his own defini- 
tion of what a portrait painter should do and "paint 
the man as well as his features?" It would seem 
superfluous to make such inquiries of ourselves when 
three of his masterpieces in portraiture were produced 
over thirty years ago and have been before the public 
in multiplied reproductions, were it not that the no- 
tices of the Memorial Exhibitions of his work fre- 
quently recurred to the old charge made against him 
that he lacked interest in humanity and therefore was 
not the greatest type of artist. If he did lack interest 
In humanity, his portraits are certainly not convinc- 
ing evidence of such a failure. On the contrary, they 
seem definitely to prove the opposite. If we refer 
them to their origin in human types we find them 
singularly explicit in what they tell us and true to the 
human nature we know. So far from being lay fig- 
ures on which to drape an arrangement of a scheme 
of colour and line they are as various as life. In fact, 
the artistic arrangement, frequently similar enough 



72 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

in general character if not in special development, is 
all that any of them have in common. There may be 
two harmonies in gray and black or rose and gold, 
there are never two subjects alike in temperament and 
personality. That this is not universally recognized 
in spite of the fact that many a critic or commentator 
has insisted upon it, is probably due to the artist's pur- 
suit of the same ideal toward which the nocturnes led. 
In portraiture it is the ideal of a quintessential like- 
ness from which all accidental effects are abstracted, 
and which is lodged so deeply within as to be inde- 
pendent of the fluctuating emotions. "The expression 
of the face," said Carriere to his pupils, "is but a mask, 
distinct from the permanent character which it modi- 
fies." No one has realized this more completely than 
Whistler. Burne- Jones had the same idea in mind 
when he said with unwonted violence, "Paint a man or 
a woman with the damned 'pleasing expression' or 
even the 'charmingly spontaneous' so dear to the 'pho- 
tographic artist' and you see at once that the thing is a 
mask, as silly as the old tragic and comic mask. The 
only expression allowable in great portraiture is the 
expression of character and moral quality, not of any- 
thing temporary, fleeting, accidental." The reason 
that Burne- Jones in following out this theory obtained 
an ideal rather than an abstract likeness may be 
traced, perhaps, to the fact that his mind was full of 
preconceived ideals which he liked to impose upon 
nature; Whistler, on the other hand, again like the 
Japanese, put nothing into his pictures that he did not 



CHARACTERISATIONS 73 

learn from nature itself. His analysis of a character 
was done in his mind, his synthesis appeared upon the 
canvas. Where the character is clearly marked and 
one that we are more or less accustomed to analyze 
for ourselves it is generally greeted with understand- 
ing. In the portrait of the artist's mother, for ex- 
ample, although it is said to have met with opposition 
when it was offered at the Academy of 1872, is so 
simple a rendering of character that the little children 
of the schools where reproductions of it are given as 
a subject for description, recognise its dominating 
sentiment and the appropriateness of the quiet room 
to the quiet figure. It is a type known to us all in its 
general aspect, touching in the most hardened of us 
the source of tears, the type of serene age, reconciled 
to its renunciations and calm with resignation due to 
noble schooling of the stubborn mind. The frail 
shoulders, the head somewhat heavy for the relaxed 
muscles and drooping a little forward, the delicate 
hands clasped quietly over the thin handkerchief; the 
smooth hair, the daintiness of the lace cap, the far- 
seeing eyes that seem to look into the past, all com- 
bine to make a lovable impression on the mind before 
the eye has distinguished the subtle division of the 
spaces, the distribution of the masses, the placing of 
the accents, the grave beauty of the values in the 
shadowy wall and black dress, the decorative charm 
of the dark curtain with its intricate pattern. No one 
has painted with more respectful observation the 
beauty of an old age respectful of itself and free from 



74 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

the suggestions of relaxing will. Without that refer- 
ence to the identity of the sitter by which Whistler 
was inspired to one of his most widely quoted sayings, 
we are still at liberty to recognize an interpretation 
of a personality which adds to the pictorial beauty of 
the "arrangement" the beauty, equally rare and 
equally magical, of character written in art. 

In the contrast between the portrait of his mother 
and that of Carlyle Whistler passes with the subtlest 
of gradations to an almost opposite type. The dif- 
ferences are so subtle that even Mr. George Moore, 
who saw in Whistler's art much beside the obvious, 
considered it merely as "the attempt to repeat a suc- 
cess." Both portraits are arrangements in black and 
gray, in each the figure is seated in profile among sur- 
roundings indicating that the room is the same in both 
pictures. But the arabesque made by the outline of 
the old philosopher silhouetted against the wall is 
forcible where that of the mother is calm and flowing. 
The large hat perched on the knee, the right hand 
resting on a cane, the coat bulging violently at the 
breast and the more erect carriage of the head con- 
tribute to an angular effect quite at variance with the 
long easy sweep of line in the earlier portrait. Even 
the angles of the chair are more sharply defined, and 
this ruggeder outline is in harmony with the more 
furrowed face, the more anxious expression, the 
querulous brow and obstinate mouth. There is a sug- 
gestion of pose in the arrangement that does not ap- 
pear in the portrait of the mother. It is not quite 




PORTRAIT OF CARLYLE. 

Courtesy of H. Wunderlich & Company. 



CHARACTERISATIONS 75 

simple and frank, and fits thereby its subject whose 
own absorption in the "picturesque' ' has been noted 
as a mark of his mind's perversity. Yet the effect in 
general is of dignity. The head especially has an 
element of grandeur in its craggy contours. It has 
struck Mr. Moore that the picture shows an absence 
of intimate knowledge and of respect and reverence 
for the illustrious sitter, and therefore fails to show 
the frame of mind in which great portraiture is done. 
Great portraiture, however, is among other things the 
placing of a subject according to its relative import- 
ance, and when we look at Whistler's Carlyle it may 
fairly be argued that we see the world's Carlyle, 
mentally as well as physically a little ailing, impres- 
sive but not imposing, not reticent or sustained by 
spiritual peace; not representative but sharply indi- 
vidual. Whether Whistler intended to convey this 
impression is quite beside the question. We cannot 
assume that he did or did not. The point is that the 
impression is conveyed and that it seems to be the one 
nearest to the truth. "What the canvas under con- 
sideration tells most plainly is that Mr. Whistler never 
forgot his own personality in that of the ancient 
philosopher," says Mr. Moore, but that is hardly a 
fair charge. In one sense there could be nothing 
more impersonal than a critical vision unconcerned 
with tHe great reputation before it, concerned only 
with the essence of the man. That the man was one 
who could sympathetically quote the objurgation 
"may the devil fly away with the fine arts" has in- 



76 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

spired no malice in the presentation. And the presen- 
tation is purely within Whistler's definition of art as 
something that should "stand alone and appeal to the 
artistic sense of eye or ear, without confounding this 
with emotions entirely foreign to it, as devotion, pity, 
love, patriotism, and the like." Upon nature, forever 
young, the past writes no hieroglyphs and the artist 
is able to ignore a scene's associations in painting it. 
The human face permits no such freedom. Character 
and personal history mould it to a greater or less 
degree and the artist who distinguishes significant 
details of surface, and complex relations and corre- 
spondences in the organic whole must perforce reveal 
character. If he reveals the essential and permanent 
rather than the transitory mood it is not necessarily 
due to his interest in his sitter but to an imagination 
which like that of the astronomer or the engineer is 
able to "body forth the forms of things unknown" 
from the concrete facts with which he stores his mind. 
Wordsworth's definition of imagination or explanation 
of its manner of working, might indeed serve as a de- 
scription of the kind of art produced by Whistler 
wherever the question of representation comes in. 
"When the imagination frames a comparison," he 
says, "if it does not strike on the first presentation, a 
sense of the truth of the likeness from the moment it is 
perceived grows — and continues to grow — upon the 
mind ; the resemblance depending less upon outline of 
form and feature than upon expression and effect, — 
less upon casual and outstanding, than upon inherent, 
internal properties." 




Arrangement in Gray and Black. 

PORTRAIT OF THE PAINTER'S MOTHER. 

Courtesy of H. Wunderlich & Company. 



CHARACTERISATIONS 77 

In his portraits of children Whistler has particu- 
larly shown his austere quality. He has been as re- 
spectful of the rights of childhood as the secondary 
painters of children have been disrespectful. Compare 
with Sir Joshua Reynolds's children, for example, 
Whistler's Miss Alexander or Little Rose of Lyme 
Regis or Chelsea Girl. Sir Joshua sees the child 
egotistically in every case, from the point of view 
of his own pleasure" in its pretty attitudes and soft 
curves. Little Penelope Boothby and The Strawberry 
Girl in spite of their charm or because of the cheap 
and superficial character of their charm have not the 
slightest interest as individuals. Not one of Whist- 
ler's children have that capacity for boring one. The 
portrait of Miss Cicely Henrietta Alexander, to give 
its proper title, is not only a Harmony in Grey and 
Green, it is an interpretation, conscious or otherwise, 
of the spirit of childhood, not only its innocence but its 
pride, not only its fresh spontaneity and charm but its 
interrogation and knowledge, in a setting as appro- 
priate in its conception to the subject of the portrait 
as the quiet environment of the mother. How com- 
pounded of inner moods and judgments is that buoy- 
ant little figure, stepping forward, her hair a luminous 
blond cloud against a light background, her eyes 
turned, not wholly without covert resentment, toward 
the spectator, her beautiful little dress, transparent 
and crisp, standing out from the slim form, her hat 
with its trailing plume held in a nonchalant hand, be- 
hind her a jaunty spray of daisies, about her head two 



78 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

fluttering butterflies. M. Benedite has given a rapt- 
urous account of the colour-scheme which harmonizes 
with all the other suggestions of youth and dainty 
beauty. (*) 

If the Miss Alexander gives us the pride of child- 
hood united to the daintiness and elegance to which 
Whistler was peculiarly sensitive, we see it no less in 
The Chelsea Girl, owned by Mr. Alexander J. Cassatt, 
united to quite different attributes. This is a child 
of the streets, standing legs astride and arms akimbo, 
her cheeks indomitably rosy, an apron over her dark 
un-childish dress, a brown hat tied under her firm 
little chin, a bow of ribbon of exquisite yellow bright- 
ening her coarse garb. As a distinguished and sober 
colour-harmony of inimitable grays and yellows, and 
as an example unusual in Whistler's art of gay and 
daring brushwork, this canvas is sufficiently a joy to 
the beholder, but it is also one of the canvasses that 
prove the artist more an explorer of the spiritual side 
of his subjects than his own words, quoted and re- 
quoted, would lead the reader not also an attentive ob- 
server of his work to believe. 

It would be difficult to imagine anything more 
acutely rendered from the psychological point of view 
than this initiated little creature, not more than eight 
or ten years of age, with her grave and bold eyes, her 
aggressive decision of pose — the pose of one instinct- 



0) The portraits of Carlyle and Miss Alexander are known to 
the present writer only in reproductions. The fine coloured prints 
recently imported are said to give a quite remarkable idea of the colour. 




PORTRAIT OF MISS CICELY HENRIETTA ALEXANDER. 

Courtesy of H. Wunderlich & Company. 



CHARACTERISATIONS 79 

lvely aware that only the fighters of her class are the 
survivors — her whole air of pitiful bravado ; even her 
ugly little costume caressed into loveliness by a tender 
and reconciling art. A sentimentalist or even a painter 
a very little less antagonistic to pictorial cant would 
have been likely to make an obvious appeal to the sym- 
pathy of the beholder in presenting a type so touching 
and suggestive. Bastien-Lepage would have filled 
the face with yearning and weariness, Sir Joshua 
would have given her some violets to sell. Whistler 
selected the outer facts that told the inner truth of 
her intricate little personality and confused them by 
no extraneous rhetoric. 

Less enigmatic, but not less subtly realized is the 
Little Rose of Lyme Regis, a half-length figure owned 
by the Boston Museum of Fine Arts and said to 
have been painted at the village of Lyme Regis 
in Dorset when Whistler was there in 1895. 
Nothing could be more unlike the sophisticated 
arrogance of the Chelsea waif than the tidy sim- 
plicity and gentle seriousness of this little Rose on 
whose face are written in unmistakable charac- 
ters amiability and the tendency to obedience, whose 
clasped hands and trusting eyes give the impression of 
docility. She also may be called a child of the people, 
perhaps, but of how different a people, with what op- 
posite traditions, surroundings and ideals! Thus to 
have discriminated between types of the two classes 
with such perfect lucidity and directness, without a 
shred of adventitious aid, without a revealing acces- 



80 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

sory or a suggestion of a typical occupation or amuse- 
ment, by merely the determining differences of pose. 
expression and feature, and by the way of wearing a 
little apron, is in itself sufficient to suggest if not to 
prove that Whistler took as much as the painter's 
usual "human interest' ' in his subjects. Another in- 
terpretation of what we may call the competent types 
is The Little Lady Sophie of Soho, a child of the 
studios, and one of the most vivid of his characterisa- 
tions. The bold refinement of her bearing, her firm 
mouth, the superb gesture of her arms, compose an 
effect of extraordinary distinction. 

Quite a different aspect of childhood, less accentu- 
ated in character but with the charm of a greater 
beauty, is shown in the Pretty Nellie Brown owned by 
Mr. Frank Lusk Babbott, of Brooklyn, New York. 
This enchanting little picture is the quietest and most 
delicate rendering of a rather fragile grace, a rather 
baffling personality. Deep mild eyes look out with 
an unquestioning, unreflective, softly indifferent gaze 
from a lovely oval face enveloped by a shimmering 
cloud of light brown hair. The recondite simplicity 
of the colour scheme is only hinted at in the "rose and 
gold" of the title. It is a dull rose deepening in the 
background almost to crimson and of the curious 
grayish tinge that brings the phrase "ashes of roses" 
into the mind. The outer garment, of this colour, 
opens at the throat over a filmy blouse of palest pink, 
modified by yellow. The flesh tones are warm, but 
less so than in the Little Lady Sophie, which also is a 



CHARACTERISATIONS 81 

harmony in rose and gold. The eyes are the dark 
accent of the face and the modelling about them is 
definite with sharp touches at the corners. The hair 
has the neutral quality of raw umber in its dim tones 
yet it is not lacking in life. The modelling of the face 
is accomplished as in many of Whistler's later works 
with the slightest alterations of tone, and the rather 
coarse canvas everywhere shows through the films of 
pigment. The brushwork is hardly brushwork at all, 
but a mere staining of the canvas with a few tones that 
melt into one another by gradations felt rather than 
seen and seem to withdraw within a pale twilight that 
softens without obscuring every form and plane. 

The gray ground which Whistler often (though by 
no means inevitably) used, shows particularly in the 
hands which are defined by the thinnest possible film 
of flesh-colour and have the look of extreme frailty 
not uncommon in the hands of children of ten or 
twelve. 

This picture was painted on as late as 1900, having 
been many times gone over before its completion. 
Whistler was then over sixty-five years of age and 
within three years of his death, but his touch upon the 
canvas was as sensitive and certain as in his earlier 
days. It is notable that old age did not produce with 
him that relaxation of will and nerve that so often 
accounts for what we commonly call "breadth" in the 
later style of the great masters. The training of his 
hand to exquisite precision and the care bestowed by 
him upon all the details of his workmanship bore fruit 



82 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

in his ability to keep to the end the precious quality of 
his art. He could do little things as well at sixty as at 
thirty, — years robbed him of nothing essential to the 
close web of his workmanship. He neither drops his 
stitches nor blurs his page. He is not forced to the 
pathetic long stroke of a hand that cannot trust itself 
to make a short one. Almost as though in defiance of 
the common enemy as age approaches we see him pro- 
ducing numberless little pictures, each one of which 
is a testimony to the quickness of his sight, the power 
of his memory, the deftness of his hand, the adequacy 
of all his faculties to answer to his call. The refine- 
ment of old age is as impressive as its coarseness is re- 
volting, and each of Whistler's late works is a monu- 
ment to his self-discipline. No man has ever died and 
left behind him a product more evenly free from the 
accidents of mortality, more purely the emanation of 
the mind and temperament. So far as his art went 
the old age he is said to have dreaded never was his. 
His interpretations of children, always peculiarly 
discerning, grew perhaps more comprehending and 
tender, a number of those belonging to his later years 
having an especial richness of sympathy with the 
ardour and reserve of childhood and an indescribable 
delicacy of interpretation. These little creatures, of 
which there are many, each unconventional, unpre- 
tentious — thoroughly alive, bear striking witness to 
Whistler's faculty of rendering character, but they are 
only a small part of all the work that bears such evi- 
dence. His full length portraits of men and women 




Arrangement in Black, No. 3. 

PORTRAIT OF SIR HENRY IRVING AS PHILIP II. 
OF SPAIN. 

By kind permission of George C. Thomas, Esq. 



CHARACTERISATIONS 83 

are both numerous and varied, although the colour 
harmony in many of them is in the key of black, pro- 
ducing an apparent similarity among them. The 
types, however, are perfectly embodied and differ- 
entiated. The portrait of Miss Rosa Corder, belong- 
ing to Mr. Canfield, is a breezy and vivid picture de- 
spite its black dress against an almost black back- 
ground. It shows a woman with a strong profile, in 
a fur-trimmed jacket, holding her hat, one might say 
swinging it somewhat, in her right hand. Splendid 
as pure painting, it is no less splendid in its vigorous 
individuality, its suggestions of movement and en- 
ergy and activity of mind. The Henry Irving as 
Philip II, has precisely the touch of dramatic gesture, 
not emphasized or to the slightest degree insisted 
upon, but hinted at in the clutch of the hand at the 
chain and the lifting of the eyebrow that brings the 
actor before us in his least exaggerated, most uncari- 
catured aspect. 

In the Portrait of a Lady, owned by Mr. Cassatt, 
the small, beautiful hand, the direct serene gaze, the 
quiet poise, the severe taste of the arrangement all 
play into the total effect of extreme elegance. In the 
portrait of Lady Archibald Campbell (The Lady 
with the Yellow Buskin) the supple figure lightly 
turned, the small head sunk in the deep furs, the small 
foot in its handsome little shoe, the droop of the mouth 
and line of the brow, as delicately indicated as unmis- 
takable in their precision, are eloquent of refined 
caprice. 



84 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

Mr. Pope's Carmen is the genius of the gypsy race, 
unique, I think, in Whistler's painting on the side of 
its rude brush strokes and its arrest of development 
at the point of powerful realisation where his habit 
, was to proceed to subtle suggestion, and unique also 
j in its bold interpretation of a barbaric nature. It is one 
of the few pictures that stand out as his experiments 
in what might be called the athletic type of art, a 
type demanding force rather than intuition or poetic 
imagination, and it is especially valuable as showing 
the artist's ease in handling such an alien subject and 
his feeling that with it he could dispense with the 
usual refinements of his craft. 

In the portrait of Sefior Sarasate, the violinist, the 
sensitiveness of the musician is noted, not as an inde- 
pendent quality, but expressed with the greatest 
subtlety in union with the mobility and eagerness of 
the Latin race. The portrait of Comte Robert de Mon- 
tesquiou-Fezensac is the epitome of dilettantism. 

In none of these portraits which show something of 
Whistler's range but by no means exhaust it, do we feel 
that the painter has failed to capture the air that 
makes his subject different from any other subject, 
that saves it not only from commonplace in general 
but from its commonplace, that disengages from the 
every-day familiar aspect the record made upon the 
features, the gestures, the figure, by habits of thought 
and feeling, and by inherent traits. Everyone knows 
the answer he made on the occasion of the celebrated 
Ruskin trial, to the judge who inquired of him whether 



CHARACTERISATIONS 85 

he did not think two hundred guineas a large sum to 
ask for a picture that had been painted in a day. "I 
ask it," he said, "for the knowledge of a lifetime." It 
is obvious that to treat a subject synthetically and yet 
fill it with suggestiveness and keep in it the unwearied 
incidental look of a thing done easily involves an 
amount of labour of mind unknown to the painter who 
relies chiefly on his joyous enthusiasm to impart the 
look of ease and happiness to his finished work. 
Whistler, however, went beyond all usual bounds in 
his patience and persistent search for the intimate 
aspect and the appearance of spontaneity in the execu- 
tion. M. Duret tells us how he produced the little 
lithographic portrait of Stephen Mallarme. The por- 
trait was to be the frontispiece of the volume of Mal- 
larme's Vers et Prose, published in 1895. Whistler 
kept Mallarme posing, working rapidly, but dis- 
satisfied with one after another of the drawings made, 
finding himself not yet able to penetrate to the abso- 
lute character. Mallarme became discouraged and 
lost all hope of a success, when the artist finally 
achieved a drawing with the charm of swift improvis- 
ation but holding all the accumulated observation of 
the many preliminary efforts. It is only necessary to 
compare the two reproductions in M. Duret's book, 
one of the finished portrait, the other of one of the at- 
tempts, to see to what depths that observation went, 
and how the mind and temperament of the poet found 
their expression in the few touches of the crayon that 
show the action of the head, the arm, the mobile eye- 



86 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

brow and flexible mouth. 'Those who knew him 
might believe they heard him speak/' M. Duret says, 
and those who knew him not may believe they see him 
think. 

Whistler also painted M. Duret's portrait and its 
little history throws much light on the method used 
by the artist in the portraits of this period. Whistler 
and his friend had been discussing the portrait of the 
President of some Society or Corporation who had 
been painted in the robes of his office of the customary 
antique cut, but with his hair arranged in the fashion 
of the day. This appearing to Whistler "in detestable 
taste/' the conversation turned on the proper pose 
and costume for a portrait. It was agreed that the 
pose should be determined by the sitter's type, that 
the dress should be modern, and that it was perfectly 
possible to paint a man in the evening dress of the 
period with satisfactory result. Whistler asked M. 
Duret to pose for him, and a standing pose and light 
background were determined upon. Then came the 
question of some accessory that should break the 
severity of the long black figure. After long 
thought Whistler bade his friend bring to the studio 
a rose-coloured domino. M. Duret, astonished but 
obedient, went in search of the domino, found it at the 
costumer's of Drury Lane Theatre, and appeared with 
it on the appointed day. The following is his descrip- 
tion of the development of the picture under Whist- 
ler's hands: 

"He posed me standing before a curtain of grayish 




PORTRAIT OF M. DURET. 



From M. Theodore Duret's Whistler. 



CHARACTERISATIONS 87 

rose-colour, the rose-coloured domino thrown over 
my left arm, bare-headed, with my hat held in my 
right hand which hung by my side, and he attacked the 
portrait without any preliminary drawing. He 
merely made with the chalk on the white canvas, a 
few marks to indicate at the top the placing of the 
head, at the bottom that of the feet, and at the right 
and left the position of the body. He then immedi- 
ately applied the colours and tones to the canvas as 
they were to be in the definitive picture. At the end of 
the pose one already could judge what the general ap- 
pearance of the work was to be. For the principal 
motif, a man standing, seen full face, in a black suit, 
then the pink domino had permitted the arrangement 
of the colours in a decorative scheme such as he in- 
troduced into all his paintings, the black of the cloth- 
ing, the rose-colour of the domino and the grayish 
rose of the background forming An Arrangement in 
Flesh-Colour and Black. The domino served him 
also in defining the character of the model who might 
pass for a gentleman going to a ball. And, finally, 
hanging as it did, over the left leg and covering it in 
part, it destroyed the stiff parallelism of the two sides 
of the body and diversified the outlines. He continued 
to make me give him long poses. He was painting 
Lady Archibald Campbell's portrait at the same time 
with mine. He carried the two works forward together 
and I was able to observe the degrees by which he kept 
them parallel. One of his principal anxieties as they 
advanced was to preserve in them the appearance of 



88 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

having been produced without effort. In place of add- 
ing details, he suppressed them and kept the style large 
before everything else. Therefore that with which 
his detractors have reproached him, the painting o£ 
sketches only, was not with him the consequence of 
absence of effort, but came from his very conception 
of a work of art, and was on the contrary the result of 
persistent attention and additional labour." M. Duret 
adds to this valuable account the statement that as 
soon as Whistler found any disturbance of the rela- 
tion between the tones from working on any part of 
the picture he at once went over the entire canvas and 
brought the whole together again. This happened 
perhaps ten times before its completion, yet when it 
was sent to the Salon of 1885 it was criticized as being 
in the nature of a sketch, probably executed in a very 
brief period of time. This impassioned attempt to 
cast everything portentous and heroic out of his pic- 
tures is perhaps the quality that opens between Whist- 
ler and his contemporaries the widest chasm. Manet's 
work while it does not suggest labour and effort does 
not on the other hand suggest the absence of it. 
Whistler's is never without the suggestion that it was 
done for the sweet pleasure of the doing, and it is in 
line with this intention that he saved himself unneces- 
sary tasks. In his later work his prepared grounds 
and his thin medium gave him remarkable control of 
his material. What helped him most, however, was 
his deliberate and reasonable foresight. One of his 
pupils has said that he insisted in the class upon a 



CHARACTERISATIONS 89 

thorough mental preparation before the canvas was 
attacked, a study of the model and the arrangement 
in the mind of the painting before the first touch was 
placed. This was no less his own method. He ap- 
pears always to have referred the image growing un- 
der his hand to a clear mental image of the complete 
effect as he wished it to be. There seems to be no evi- 
dence in his pictures of reconsiderations or changes of 
plan. The repaintings to which they were in many in- 
stances subjected seem always to have been the means 
by which he reached his predetermined goal, not the 
result of efforts to improve or alter a first intention. 
This no doubt is what he means by saying that a pic- 
ture should be finished from the beginning. In such a 
sense it is finished from the beginning as each time 
that it is laid aside it is in a condition that shows the 
precise relation between all the parts. 

How different was Manet's attitude M. Duret has 
told us in his Histoire d'Edouard Manet. In 1868 
Manet painted his portrait and M. Duret watched 
the process with the same intelligent interest that 
fifteen years later he was to show with the portrait 
painted by Whistler. Manet commenced, he says, 
with a harmony of grays, but when the picture was 
finished and seemed to M. Duret entirely successful, 
he could see that Manet was not satisfied with it. He 
put M. Duret in pose again and began to add acces- 
sories. First he arranged a little table with a garnet 
cover and painted that. Then came the happy idea of 
throwing a book with a light green cover under the 



90 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

table and painting that. Later, a carafe, a glass and 
a knife on a lacquer tray were placed on the table. 
Finally a lemon was added. Thus the artist built up 
a little bouquet of colour in the picture that satisfied 
his natural instinct as the quiet grays could not. M. 
Duret has traced in many of his other pictures the 
same accumulative process by which multi-coloured 
accessories are added to a general gray tone, as if by 
an after-thought. 

Apparently Whistler and Manet worked in almost 
precisely opposite directions in the actual treatment 
of their material. Whistler in his later portraits be- 
came increasingly abstract, eliminated detail with a 
deepening passion for simplification, resolved his 
varied colours more persistently into a single expres- 
sive tone; sacrificed the exquisite accessories of his 
early work, and finally stood, quite alone in his gen- 
eration, severe almost to the point of austerity, im- 
pressive, learned, and triumphant over all pre-occupa- 
tions with the by-play of art. Never inclined toward 
a positively high key, (try a white handkerchief 
against his lighter pictures and note how low in tone 
it shows them to be) he was more frequently solicited 
by closely related grays and variations of black, and 
posed his models and sitters chiefly in the half light 
of his studio to secure for them the quiet illumination 
that made possible his infinitely quiet effects. 

Manet, on the contrary, was increasingly inclined 
toward posing his models in the open air and using 
vivid colours in juxtaposition. If he, to adopt M. 




THE LADY WITH THE YELLOW BUSKIN. 

In the W. P. Wilstach Collection, Philadelphia. 



CHARACTERISATIONS 9 1 

Duret's phrase, was the hunter leaping every obstacle 
in his path in his reckless determination to reach his 
goal, Whistler was the racer, covering his ground 
steadily, conserving his energy, and achieving his 
purpose without swerving from his course. 

And we are safe to assume that a part at least of 
his purpose was to realize individual characteristics. 
There is no sign that he cared to represent in his art 
the richness of the human world. If his types are 
various it is probable that he nevertheless took them 
much as they came, reserving his right not to take 
them at all if they did not please him. There are many 
classes of society not to be found in his work, and we 
cannot by the farthest stretch of imagination call it 
the "baggage" of a painter for whom the personal 
experience of men and women is an unfailingly inspir- 
ing theme. Nor do we find that human affairs in gen- 
eral have any place in his paintings. "I do not remem- 
ber/' says Mr. Cox, "a single figure-picture by Whist- 
ler," in which anybody is doing anything in particular. 
His figures stand or sit or recline, but they never 
act." This, of course, is of the essence of his art, 
and his power to show character in repose is certainly 
not a mark of inefficiency. But the fact remains that 
his was not illustrative painting in any sense of the 
word. We not only learn from it nothing of the 
events of the time in which he worked, we learn noth- 
ing of the feelings, admirations and prejudices of the 
time. He never painted an "Hommage* to anyone; 
he never chose such a subject as the Night Watch; 



92 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

he celebrated no historical event such as the combat 
of the Kearsarge and the Alabama, which moved 
Manet to the achievement of a truly magnificent ma- 
rine. It is all the more remarkable that he has been 
able so completely to project himself into the tempera- 
ment of the individual There is nothing cheap or 
coarse in his psychology, therefore it is easy to over- 
look it. But if we overlook it we have shut ourselves 
from one of the most delicate pleasures of the many 
with which he has provided us, 



ETCHINGS 



CHAPTER SIXTH. 

Etchings. 

MUCH has been written of Whistler's etchings 
from both the technical and the untechnical 
point of view, and only the simple truth that 
a thing of beauty is a joy forever can excuse bringing 
the subject forward again with no very new light to 
throw upon it, with only a personal pleasure in it to 
record. Simple as it seems, however, to say that 
Whistler's etchings are beautiful, it is what can be 
said of comparatively few etchings in the world. Al- 
ways an interesting process because of its definite and 
personal character, etching requires a profoundly 
artistic intelligence to turn its limitations to artistic 
ends, to make peace with the instrument, as it were, 
to soften and subdue a certain shrillness in its artistic 
utterance of the artistic idea without destroying its 
crispness and decision. In all etching the effect 
should be of a line made by an inflexible metal point, 
and scratching a metal plate with a metal point is, of 
course, of the essence of dry-point work. A true 
etcher is not tempted to disregard the lineal character 
of his medium, his problem is to make his line so ex- 
pressive and musical as to destroy in the mind of the 
observer all thought of its limitations. If he can so 
lightly and subtly suggest shapes and distances as to 
convey the memory beyond them to stored associa- 
tions and impressions too delicate to be evoked by a 



96 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

ruder touch, he has made his inflexible point do its 
whole duty as an artistic medium. To do more would 
be to do less. This apparently is the conclusion to 
which Whistler was led by his many years of study 
and practice in etching, and, paradoxically, it is the 
conclusion from which he started. His earliest plates, 
or to speak more accurately, some of his very early 
plates, show his innate tendency to make a single line 
express twenty, to select the one line exclusively ap- 
propriate to his subject and to concentrate attention 
on the object most interesting to him which consti- 
tutes his theme. The Isle de la Cite, dated 1859, is 
quite as perfect a description of the given scene as we 
could find among his later works. It speaks quite as 
concisely, the form is quite as elegant and as in- 
tently observed as in, for example, the Upright 
Venice of more than twenty years later. The 
little group of clustered houses, the buildings 
shown with less and less detail toward the edges 
of the plate, the riverside and bridges with their 
minute little figures, the open placid sky, all indicated 
with exquisite restraint of expression, contain the 
essential charm of his method. His later renderings 
of similar scenes in a similar mood carry perhaps 
more of the courage of his conviction, but they reveal 
no different conviction. Not all the etchings of that 
period, however, are thus wholly comparable with the 
later ones. Many are rich and beautiful portraits of 
places in which every detail of picturesque value is 
elaborately worked out, in which the sense of light 



ETCHINGS 97 

and dark in extreme contrast is somewhat insisted 
upon ; in which, in fact, the mood of the etcher might 
be considered as one of emphasis arguing with 
slightly excessive eloquence for the beauty of what he 
sees. The quality of such eloquence is not, indeed, to 
be denied. Only one thing could be more expressive 
— the statement unadorned of a fact of beauty so 
moving as to make adornment superfluous. To this 
Whistler in his later etchings proceeded, not chang- 
ing his artistic intention, but refining his method until 
it became so distinguished as to be almost negligible. 
By a perfectly natural evolution he more and more 
came to substitute expressive spaces for expressive 
detail. But it could only be through mastery of detail 
that he could learn when to ignore it, and the individ- 
ual results of his early work are delightful in their 
kind with values of association that persist in appeal- 
ing to the untechnical careless world. 

His first dated series of etchings, published in 
1858 (*) and called the French Set, includes thirteen 
plates, some of them made on a trip into Alsace, Lor- 
raine and Germany, and others in Paris. The subjects 
are from the life about him and show him in a sense ofif 
guard as he was not in his early paintings. He was 
using a medium, that is, with which he had gained 
familiarity in the mechanical task of engraving plates 
for the Coast Survey. He knew precisely what his 
hand could do, and he was thus free to use his eyes 
as an artist immediately and independently, without 

( x ) 1858 is the date given by M. Duret. Mr, Wedmore Has it 1859. 



98 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

the perplexing undercurrent of wonder as to how 
he should render the thing seen. He began with this 
part of his initiation behind him, and could at once 
devote himself to the refinements of the technical 
process necessary to produce the exquisite results for 
which he sought. Had he learned to engrave on cop- 
per with the direct intention of making pictures by 
that means he might have found it more difficult to 
avoid that habit of which he has told us, so often 
formed by students in schools, the habit of making 
pictures of pictures instead of making pictures of 
nature. No accident of education could have made 
him individual if he had not started so, but this lucky 
accident may have kept him from falling into the 
imitative ways of a student by giving him a means of 
adequate expression for his pictorial ideas before he 
had mastered the craft of painting. In the French 
Set, for example, is an etching of La Mere Gerard, 
an old French woman who fell by degrees from the 
proud estate of keeper of a reading room, to the 
humble occupation of selling flowers at the door of 
the Bal Bullier, where Whistler was attracted by her 
picturesque figure and claimed her for a model. She 
wears a dark tippet and a bonnet tied under her chin, 
her face is keen with a sensitive mouth and clear-cut 
nose, her brow is marked by the bar of Michael An- 
gelo. Not a line of the dainty little plate but shows the 
fine discrimination of Whistler's taste and the costly 
simplicity of his execution. We have only to compare 
this quite perfect etching with the portrait in oils of 





fr* 






" THE RAG GATHERERS." 
(From the Etching.) 
Reproduced by the courtesy of Messrs. Frederick Keppel and Company, 



ETCHINGS 99 

the same model, which was one of his earlier achieve- 
ments, to realize how much it meant to him to "know 
how." The oil-colour is laborious and holds remi- 
niscences of commonplace ways of handling the brush 
and the pigment. If the embryo of Whistler's style 
is there it is formless and indistinguishable as his. 

We may therefore consider it a piece of extraordi- 
nary good fortune for ourselves as for him that his 
frank youthful vision of Paris and London was not 
obliged to wait for a single night to be translated into 
his characteristic idiom. A Thames Set of sixteen 
etchings followed the French Set and the two groups 
with the detached subjects of the same early period, 
are records of localities that vie with those of 
Balzac in their precision of representative state- 
ment. The plate called The Rag Gatherers, for 
example, shows a hovel in the Qitartier Mouffetard. 
The doorway frames the scene, a device of which 
Whistler made frequent use, and which contributes 
to the effect always in his mind to obtain — the effect 
of seeing objects not as though they stood out from 
the paper or canvas or other material on which they 
are drawn, but as though they were a little back of it. 
We perceive two figures, a boy and a girl or woman, 
within the room at long range as if we were peering 
into a rather deep enclosure from some distance be- 
yond the threshold. The girl is bending forward with 
an appealing aspect of frailty in her small face sur- 
rounded by a fall of heavy hair, the boy is erect and 
wears his cap and blouse with jauntiness. And there 



100 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

is the inimitable revealing touch of a master upon ac- 
cessories, showing by a few objects, a heavy wall- 
beam, a little table, some irregular boards in the floor- 
ing, the precise character of the squalid interior. In 
an earlier state in the Avery collection (') there are 
no figures. "The scene is then," says Mr. Wedmore, 
"in its silence and squalor almost as suggestive as the 
Rue des Manuals Garcons of Meryon." 

The famous plate The Kitchen shows another char- 
acteristic interior, tidy this time and comfortable, with 
a woman's figure at the end of the room in a deep 
recess on the walls of which the sunlight pours 
through a little window. Vines make charming pat- 
terns on the window-pane and shadows on the wall. 
The figure of the woman is very dark and most of the 
room is in heavy shadow. We see the details of its 
furnishing, however, and the textures and surfaces 
of the different objects are scrupulously defined. They 
are not, that is, partially obliterated by the shadow, 
their specific appearance is not merged in a single 
tone, as so often is the case with Rembrandt's rooms 
in which the light and shade are thus strongly con- 
trasted. Even at this date Whistler had his indi- 
vidual way of treating chiaroscuro, a way that is fully 
developed in such paintings as The Yellow Buskin 
and the Rosa Corder. He kept his darks distinguish- 
able from one another, although casting them into a 



C) It is catalogued as the first state, but the whole question of 
states is still so shifting that one hesitates even to quote a positive 
statement. 



ETCHINGS 101 

common shadow. The background does not blend 
with the figure and the darks of the curtain and the 
dress are as different in value as red and green are 
different in colour value. We find this all through the 
etchings even where the shadow becomes positive 
blackness as in La Vieille aux Loques, another French 
habitation with a delightful old woman nodding in the 
doorway and an extraordinary amount of cross- 
hatching all over the darker parts of the plate. Not 
until the printing of the Venice Nocturnes does he 
adopt a chiaroscuro which grows without interrup- 
tion from darkness to light so that critics uncon- 
trollably impelled to compare his etchings to those of 
Rembrandt must go as far as this to discover any real 
correspondence in vision or rendering and by this time 
the etchings in all other particulars have become so 
unlike anyone else's that to search for correspond- 
ences is a thankless task. One little plate of the early 
period, however, (the Little Arthur, Wedmore 13) 
does afford an opportunity for direct reference to 
Rembrandt. It is etched with a different line from 
that usually chosen by Whistler from among the in- 
numerable possibilities of line. Even where his lines 
are minute as in La Mere Gerard they are seldom 
abrupt or scratchy. They convey a sense of tranquil- 
lity not only in the mood of the etcher, but in the atmos- 
phere surrounding the subject of the etching. It is 
the same tendency that led him away from noonday 
effects in his open air pictures and from the use of a 
high key in his colour schemes. He had not — in his 



102 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

art — the dramatic note. This Little Arthur, however, 
is etched with a crisp almost crackling line, that gives 
the figure the appearance of being seated in pulsing 
shimmering sunlight. The air vibrates and tingles 
with little sharp accents. How often Rembrandt used 
this effect in his small portrait heads and little early 
compositions is a matter of common knowledge, but 
there is an especially striking likeness between the 
Little Arthur and his William II (Blanc, No. 177). 
In each we find the same modelling of the face with 
cross-hatched shadows, the same discrimination of 
texture in the hair and dress without special definition 
of planes, the same breaking up of the background 
with the little staccato lines already referred to, and in 
this one instance we find a shadow connecting the 
figure with the background more extended and "Rem- 
brandtesque" in Whistler's plate than in Rembrandt's. 
The suggestion is clear that in that subject and at that 
moment Whistler, whether or not with Rembrandt in 
mind, was making his picture out of light and shade 
with less attention than usual to the pattern made by 
line and surface. 

Another early plate (1859), The Landscape with 
the Horse, has also its reminiscences of Rembrandt 
which are not, however, enough to dilute the strong 
personal character of the design. They show most in 
the state where it is a landscape with two horses. The 
meadow dipping and rising, the little fence marking 
the sharp elevation of the ground in the distance, the 
foliage light without fuzziness, the shapes of the trees 




w 



t 



"JO'S BENT HEAD. 

(From the Etching.) 
Reproduced by the courtesy of H. Wunderlich & Co. 



ETCHINGS 103 

against the sky, are all in Rembrandt's tradition of 
representing in a landscape great solidity and distance 
with a few structural lines and just as much realism 
as will leave wholly unimpaired the indispensable 
attribute of vitality in the drawing. But they are 
also in Whistler's tradition as he shows it throughout 
his work in all its forms, and it is probable that the 
choice of a landscape subject — a choice so rare with 
him as to seem in itself a mark of some outside in- 
fluence — is chiefly responsible for the thought of 
Rembrandt that inevitably comes to mind at sight of 
this beautiful and in no way uncharacteristic etching. 
The very fact that one example or two permit a 
reference to forerunners throws into striking relief 
the originality of Whistler's work as a whole. In 
noting here and there a resemblance one is forced at 
the same time to note its isolated character and the in- 
frequency of opportunities to trace influences or even 
relationships. A few of the French Set remind the 
observer acquainted with Meryon's majestic portraits 
of old Paris that Whistler had been etching ten years 
before Meryon died and no doubt had felt the inspira- 
tion of his rare and passionate genius. There is the 
Street at Saverne in which a street lamp casts a broad 
illumination over the walls of houses on the opposite 
side. The large flat surfaces on which the light rests 
uninterrupted by accidental shadows, the simple im- 
posing masses of strong dark, the solid dignified archi- 
tecture, have just such beauty as the artist of the Rue 
de la Tixanderie sought and found unceasingly. 



104 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

There is also the Liverdun, a farmyard of Lorraine, 
in which the distribution of light and shade produces 
the effect of massive structure, almost of solemnity, 
with which Meryon invests the simplest scene. A few 
other plates, among them The Miser and Wych Street, 
have this effect — it might crudely be called the flat 
wall effect, as it depends upon the flooding of a large 
unbroken surface with light, — and wherever it occurs 
we are assailed by the thought of Meryon, so that we 
could say with a certain amount of justification that 
Meryon more than any other etcher influenced Whist- 
ler's etched work. But if we say this we must remem- 
ber that it is an influence audible because of the silence 
in which it speaks. To lay special stress upon it or to 
extend it beyond occasional examples, would be to 
exaggerate it. Still less can we afford to emphasize 
the influence of any contemporary. Beside his 
brother-in-law, Sir Seymour Haden, his friend 
Legros and Felix Bracquemond were expressing very 
definite temperaments and ideals through the medium 
of etching; but their work only serves to emphasize 
the independence of Whistler's. Sir Seymour Haden 
was probably most intimately his companion as an 
etcher. There is at least one plate which they etched 
in collaboration, (it is called The Wood) and it is 
obvious that in a number of instances they were draw- 
ing the same subject at the same time. These plates 
made side by side are the best evidence possible of the 
degree of artistic relationship between the two artists. 
Its negligibility is not to be mistaken. If we take for 



ETCHINGS 105 

a single example the etching by Whistler of Green- 
wich Park, in which the trees, seldom found as a 
prominent feature of his compositions, afford an op- 
portunity for comparison, we see at once how he made 
a distinct pattern of the foliage with clear-cut edges 
where Sir Seymour Haden reproduced instead its 
depth and blurred its silhouette. The sharpness and 
fineness of Whistler's vision and of his translation of 
his vision were much more in harmony with the 
methods of his French friends than with those of any 
contemporary English artist and the mid-Victorian 
element in the work of Sir Seymour Haden which 
makes it national and typical and of a special period, 
(and thus adds to its value for those to whom such 
qualities are a part, and even a precious part, of an 
artistic achievement,) separates it absolutely from 
Whistler's work of any time. Divergent as they are 
in method, style, and choice of subject there is more 
of Bracquemond's spirit in Whistler's way of seeing 
than there is of Haden's. Bracquemond took deeply 
his lessons from the Japanese, and in all his original 
work of the early sixties (it was not extensive) we 
see an effort to spot his surfaces with a decorative ar- 
rangement of darks and lights, and to seize the spon- 
taneous impression. He and Whistler at least felt in 
common the charm and value of spontaneity of effect 
and a decorative plan. Bracquemond's fine care for 
the quality of his materials and his indomitable sim- 
plicity in the use of his complicated equipment of 
knowledge were also qualities in line with Whistler's, 



106 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

but he was at heart a decorator rather than an artist 
in the sense that Whistler was an artist, and it is not 
possible to go any distance in comparison of the two. 
With Legros there was even less chance of the 
interplay of intellectual and temperamental points of 
view. He and Whistler began to etch at about the 
same time, but there is as little likeness between their 
methods or their ways of seeing in their etchings as 
in their paintings. Legros, despite his classic tend- 
encies, was essentially dramatic. M. Alexandre has 
cleverly traced to his actual familiarity with the thea- 
tre in his youth as a scene-painter, the characteristic 
arrangement of his compositions, and many of his 
large plates are in truth singularly suggestive of 
scenes arranged for the stage. This fact alone would 
separate him entirely from Whistler's unobtrusive 
and carefully "accidental" quality. But if we examine 
the two portraits of Delatre, the printer, made by 
Whistler and Legros respectively, we see how deep 
the chasm was between their different ways of repre- 
senting a subject, and how adequate Whistler was to 
grasp not alone the pictorial but the personal aspect 
of the man before him, where Legros conventional- 
ized and confused the impression. Whistler's Delatre 
is not only a man but a Frenchman and not only a 
Frenchman but a French craftsman. His rather sen- 
sitive, observant eyes, his clear-cut features, his air 
of capability and training, of being a little finicky of 
mind and exigent of manner, are precisely those of 
one to whom an artistic craft with its mingling of 




'WHISTLER WITH THE WHITE LOCK. 



(From the etching in the Avery Collection : Reproduced by courtesy of the Print Department of 
the New York Public Library.) 



ETCHINGS 107 

poetry and science would appeal. The Delatre of 
Legros, on the contrary, is earnest and commonplace, 
an honest man, but not necessarily a Frenchman or 
a craftsman, and with no interest of individuality. 

Without multiplying instances of Whistler's un- 
likeness to other painter-etchers of his circle, it is safe 
to accept him as not even at the beginning a follower. 
Much of the charm of his early work lies in this fresh- 
ness of outlook upon surroundings more familiar in 
literature than in art. 

He became known to the public as an etcher chiefly 
through his great Thames series, in which the dark 
river with its multitudinous burdens, its stately 
bridges, its shores swarming with idlers and traffick- 
ers, is brought before one in its daily aspect, a part of 
the vast town by which it has been enchained and a 
part of the familiar life of the people. His biographer 
notes that he was the first interpreter of this commer- 
cial London, his predecessors having pushed up 
toward Richmond and toward Henley in their seeking 
for the Morris ideal of a — 

— London small and white and clean. 

The clear Thames bordered by its gardens green. 
He was minutely accurate in his pictures of the 
barges and warehouses, the fishing-boats bringing 
their fish to the Billingsgate market, the docks and the 
taverns, and those who knew these features of the 
river life in the sixties report them to be so faithfully 
recorded that a true historical value is added to the 
artistic value of the etchings in which they appear. It 



108 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

seems to have been his habit to carry his plates into 
the actual presence of the scene he was to represent, 
and to make his quiet, delicately considered composi- 
tions in the turmoil of busy places, drawing directly 
upon the copper without preliminary sketching. M. 
Duret relates that while he was drawing the beautiful 
plate called Roiherhithe in a repair shop on the bank 
of the river a brick fell from above just missing his 
head and causing his hand involuntarily to swerve, 
making the long perpendicular mark across the plate 
which may be seen in the print. 

In such plates as the Black Lion Wharf, Eagle 
Wharf, Adam and Eve Tavern, Thames Warehouses, 
and Limehouse, he drew with the most minute accu- 
racy each variation in material, colour, or surface of 
the old buildings. Different widths of board, the let- 
tering of signs, the latticed railings of little balconies, 
iron brackets, the crooked sashes of the windows, oc- 
casional pots of flowers and vines, the ropes and rings 
and pulleys of complicated machinery, all are noted 
with scrupulous precision and are held in a true rela- 
tion and proportion. The little air of conscientious- 
ness that rests upon them and is due not to their multi- 
tudinous detail, but to the fact that the line in them 
is often permitted to define rather than suggest, is so 
soon absent from Whistler's work that one welcomes 
it here as the outward and visible sign of his inner 
labour. That it was not the complete fulfilment of his 
own ideal we are bound to recognize in recalling his 
"Propositions'' — 



ETCHINGS 109 

"A picture is finished when all trace of the means 
used to bring about the end has disappeared. 

"To say of a picture, as is often said in its praise, 
that it shows great and earnest labour, is to say that it 
is uncomplete and unfit for view. 

"Industry in Art is a necessity — not a virtue — and 
any evidence of the same in the production is a blem- 
ish, not a quality; a proof, not of achievement, but of 
absolutely insufficient work, for work alone will efface 
the footsteps of work." 

If we turn from the Thames Warehouses or the 
Adam and Eve Tavern to one of the later etchings, 
such as The Bridge, we are in a position to realize the 
truth of these propositions which hold in a nutshell the 
statement long sought by critics of the artistic quality 
par excellence. Nothing could wear more completely 
the light and gracious air of a work of art that has 
"done itself" than this complicated collocation of 
irregular buildings, river craft and people — the houses 
on the bank with their quaint various construction, 
straggling off into the pleasant distance where 
glimpses of little trees may be had, the small boats 
poled ever so lazily up the stream; the delicate arch 
of the bridge with its odd draperies, the outlines of 
human forms, standing idly watching, strolling along 
the water-side, lounging, loafing, forging busily 
ahead, what does it all seem but the merest accident of 
a fair day alongshore, when happening upon such a 
scene, the natural thing was gaily to fix upon the cop- 
per the memoranda that shall prevent its dissolving 
into nothingness in the mind. 



110 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

Yet if the most facile sketcher among us should pull 
out his note-book in the presence of a similar throng 
of incidents and objects and essay to separate from the 
confusion just those essential elements of it that make 
for the beauty of the long perspective of the shore, and 
the perfect curve of the bridge that contrasts with it 
and yet seems to repeat and flow into it, for the sim- 
plicity and suggestiveness of the little figures, for the 
charming relation between the clear patch of sky and 
the broad sweep of water, for the completeness in a 
word of the picture, the task would be found to involve 
a combination of talent and training such as occurs 
only once or twice in a generation — or a century, and 
the facile sketcher doubtless would be greatly at a loss 
confronting his apparently easy problem. 

To make a difficult thing appear easy — that is the 
final achievement of art on its technical side, yet the 
artist who succeeds in doing with apparent careless- 
ness what others conspicuously have laboured over 
naturally arouses suspicion. The average mind is im- 
patient at being put off with less work than is paid for 
according to the commutation of commerce, and the 
necessity of presenting a visible result for every frag- 
ment of time spent upon a picture has been felt by 
many an honest artisan. It was this sentiment of false 
honesty that led to the downfall of the Pre-Raphaelites, 
and under the guise of conscientiousness, it is, of 
course, of the nature of vanity. Whistler was free 
from at least this form of the almost universal human 
blight. It was nothing to him that in his synthetic 



ETCHINGS 1 1 1 

arrangements the expressive blank spaces conveyed 
the impression of slightness. It was everything to him 
to distinguish the lines holding the utmost possibilities 
of beauty and significance amid confusing surplusage. 
Following his line which is flung out rythmically like 
the gesture of an eloquent hand we become conscious 
not of what we naturally — without any especial artis- 
tic interest in the scene — would see, but of what he 
wishes us to see. He throws open doors and windows 
upon nature and lets the mind out upon spacious and 
beguiling horizons. 

His early etchings were promptly appreciated as 
works of art. Certain prints were exhibited at the 
Royal Academy in 1859 where that side of his art con- 
tinued to be represented until 1864. His reputation 
as an etcher, holding its own for twenty years through 
the declining popularity of his paintings, led the Fine 
Art Society of London in 1879 to send him to Venice 
for the purpose of making a series of twelve etchings. 
It is interesting to note (on the authority of M. Duret) 
that he was to receive for these the sum of six hundred 
pounds sterling and was also to receive ten shillings 
for each proof that he printed himself. This arrange- 
ment is said to have brought about his taking up the 
printing of his impressions as a regular thing, no one 
desiring an impression made by a professional printer 
after seeing the effects obtained by his management 
of the process. He returned from Venice in Novem- 
ber, 1880, after an absence of fourteen months, during 
which he had etched forty plates, from which the Fine 



112 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

Art Society made their selection of twelve. A hun- 
dred impressions were printed from each and the series 
sold at fifty guineas. A sufficient number of people 
cared for the reticent line and beautiful tone of these 
etchings to make the little enterprise a success from 
the commercial point of view; but from the critics 
came a torrent of abuse. Mr. Wedmore ingeniously 
explains that they, accustomed to representations of 
Venice embodying suggestions of her past glory and 
accustomed also to what Mr. Brownell has called Rus- 
kin's "savage and meaningless exuberance" in his 
Stones of Venice, were taken aback and offended by 
Whistler's quiet little renderings of the wonderful city. 
Like Sir Bedivere when that knight was sent to throw 
away Excalibur, he saw "nothing but the waters wap 
and the waves wan." He saw a low dentellated sky- 
line of roofs across the lagune, a modern Venice, with- 
out Doges, without pomp or splendour, lovely enough 
in its divested and impoverished state, but lacking its 
ancient authoritative magnificence. It was this aspect 
that he represented and it had the merit of complete 
originality. Nearly all critics have noted the change 
in Whistler's manner in passing from the Thames 
etchings to those of Venice. The difference between 
the two sets is so great, says M. Duret, that one might 
believe them to be the work of two different men 
There is, however, an underlying likeness that with 
little difficulty can be traced, and even the French set 
contains examples in which the arrangement of the 
lines and the light and shade is almost identical with 



ETCHINGS 113 

that in certain Venetian plates. If we examine The 
Kitchen and The Beggars for their points of resemb- 
lance we shall find them neither few nor trivial. In 
the darker impressions of The Beggars they are espe- 
cially notable. Here, as in The Kitchen, a light open- 
ing is seen at the end of a dusky passage, the light 
strikes the wall at the right, then there is a stretch of 
intense dark and the edges of the plate are in half light. 
The whole plan of the design is the same in each plate. 
We find this effect of looking through a window -frame 
or doorway to a scene beyond in many of the etchings 
of different periods. In the plate called Under Old 
Battersea Bridge we look between the dark supports 
of the bridge, in the Furnace Nocturne we see a com- 
paratively small square of intense light set in a frame- 
work of translucent shadow so vaporous and shifting 
as hardly to be called shadow, in the Bead Stringers, 
a group of Italian women sit in a doorway, a shuttered 
window in the distance as in The Kitchen; in The 
Traghetto we look through a long tunnel as in The 
Beggars to the lighted opening at the other end. 
There are countless variations, but the theme is the 
same. In the same way such plates as Price's Candle 
Works, Chelsea Wharf, Cadogan Pier, The Adam 
and Eve Tavern are comparable with The Bridge, 
the Riva, Number Two and Upright Venice in 
their balance of lines and spaces. In each there is 
the effect of the long perspective, the amplitude of sky 
and air, the absence of crowding in the arrangement 
of the detail. In Mr. Menpes's Whistler as I Knezv 



114 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

Him are a trial proof and a later impression of the 
plate called Temple Bar, which together throw no little 
light on Whistler's method of carrying an etching for- 
ward. In the trial proof there are merely some lines 
indicating the approach of the interest toward the cen- 
tre of the plate. In this instance the archway is ob- 
viously to be the point on which attention is to be con- 
centrated and all the contributory lines lead up to it. 
In the later impression w T e see it brilliantly defined 
with a beautiful play of light and shadow over its sur- 
face and some sharp accents of dark on the buildings 
near it, while the lines that reach to the edge of the 
plate are left few and faint. Of this pinning down of 
the attention to the salient elements of the picture 
Whistler was a consummate master. He never failed 
to direct your gaze to the exact spot that most inter- 
ested him, nor did he ever make the guidance too 
obvious. The virtue of his fluent and restful line is 
never more gratefully felt than when he leads you with 
it along vast distances to wide horizons finally to claim 
your observation for a doorway covered by a vine or 
some sailing boats asleep between the night and 
morning. 

In going to Venice he had one advantage that could 
not be gained at home. The scene presented itself as 
a whole with the details of which he was at first un- 
familiar. Such a first impression is always synthetic 
to an extreme degree, and his genius was precisely of 
the order to hold it and refer to it the later impressions 
that came with his fuller knowledge of his environ- 



ETCHINGS 115 

merit. The "psychological moment" when he saw 
everything perfectly as a part of a co-ordinated ap- 
pearance in which nothing loomed larger than its rela- 
tive size or took on more importance than belonged to 
it in the general plan, was a moment to which he clung, 
to which he was able to cling, through all the subse- 
quent submerging experiences of his increasing famil- 
iarity. He was thus able to write his story of Venice 
on the copper with an almost epic largeness in spite of 
the smallness of the scale. Such wealth of result with 
such economy of means has rarely if ever before been 
seen. Occasionally, as in the Little Venice and the 
Salute: Dawn, we have only atmosphere, a wonderful 
sensation of moving air and changing light, held as it 
were to the visible scene by a few expressive lines 
gaining their expressiveness from the fact that no 
other lines challenge or contradict them. It is char- 
acteristic of the time in which he worked and its senti- 
ment that Burne- Jones might have said of him as 
he did of the Impressionists "they don't make anything 
else but atmosphere — and I don't think that's enough 
— I don't think it's very much." Even Burne- Jones 
admitted, however, that Whistler was "another mat- 
ter" and in the case of the Venetian etchings the pub- 
lic, according to M. Duret's report, for once were on 
Whistler's side against the critics. 

A second exhibition was held in February, 1883, 
in the galleries of the Fine Art Society, and Whistler 
prepared for the occasion a catalogue in which were 
printed various quotations from the criticisms — the 



116 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

hostile criticisms — that had appeared in the more in- 
fluential journals on the subject of his previous exhibi- 
tion. Visitors to the galleries had the pleasure of 
reading in their catalogues, over the names of promi- 
nent writers, that the etchings of Mr. Whistler had 
little to recommend them save the eccentricity of their 
titles, that there was in them a general absence of tone, 
that Mr. Whistler was eminently vulgar, that he had 
produced too much for his reputation, etcetera. Thus 
amused and already somewhat initiated by the praise 
of eagerly appreciative collectors, they showed a more 
positive liking for the second series of etchings than 
for the first. 

The latest Venetian series was issued in 1886 by 
Messrs. Dowdeswell. This was the famous "Twenty- 
Six" of which twenty-one were views of Venice and 
the others English subjects. Only thirty-five sets were 
published and the printing was done by Whistler. 

He added to his catalogue on this occasion his 
eleven Propositions in which are announced his 
opinions on the production of very large plates 
and on the habit, then common with etchers, of 
leaving a broad margin of paper around their 
work which usually was adorned with the mini- 
ature sketch known as the remarque. An extreme in- 
stance of this use of the border is found in the work 
of Felix Buhot, the French etcher who died in 1898, 
and who surrounded his main etching with innumer- 
able sketches more or less closely connected with it as 
if he were following out with his etching needle the 










EARLY PORTRAIT OF WHISTLER BY HIMSELF. 

(From the etching in the Avery Collection : Reproduced by courtesy of the Print Department of 
the New York Public Library.) 



ETCHINGS 117 

dreams or reflections to which it gave rise in his mind. 
Nothing could be farther from Whistler's concise tem- 
per. His Propositions state : 

I. That in Art it is criminal to go beyond the means 
vised in its exercise. 

II. That the space to be covered should always be 
in proper relation to the means used for covering it. 

III. That in etching the means used, or instrument 
employed, being the smallest possible point, the space 
to be covered should be small in proportion. 

IV. That all attempts to overstep the limits insisted 
upon by such proportion are inartistic thoroughly, and 
tend to reveal the paucity of means used instead of con- 
cealing the same, as required by Art in its refinement. 

V. That the huge plate, therefore, is an offence — 
its undertaking an unbecoming display of determina- 
tion and ignorance — its accomplishment a triumph 
of unthinking earnestness and uncontrolled energy — 
both endowments of the "duffer." 

VI. That the custom of "remarque" emanates from 
the amateur, and reflects his foolish facility beyond the 
border of his picture, thus testifying to his unscientific 
sense of its dignity. 

VII. That it is odious. 

VIII. That, indeed, there should be no margin on 
the proof to receive such "remarque." 

IX. That the habit of margin, again, dates from 
the outsider and continues with the collector in his un- 
reasoning connoisseurship — taking curious pleasure 
in the quantity of paper. 



118 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

X. That the picture ending where the frame begins, 
and in the case of the etching, the white mount, being 
inevitably because of its colour the frame, the picture 
thus extends itself irrelevantly through the margin to 
the mount. 

XI. That wit of this kind would leave six inches of 
raw canvas between the painting and its gold frame to 
delight the purchaser with the quality of the cloth. 

In accordance with these views Whistler trimmed 
all his later etchings close, leaving only a little bar for 
the butterfly signature and the printer's mark. 

Following the Twenty-Six came French and Eng- 
lish, Belgian and Dutch plates, little shops and scenes 
on the boulevards and in the public gardens, notes of 
streets and models and little children, with an occa- 
sional single plate given to some subject rarely found 
in his work, as the magnificent Sunflowers, Rue des 
Beaux- Arts in which it is impossible not to regret the 
absence of colour, and the little plate called An Eagle 
in which the national bird of the artist's country wears 
a very mild aspect, but is delightfully drawn. In 1887, 
the year of Queen Victoria's first Jubilee, he made a 
little series of plates, called the Naval Review set, 
during the day of the Review at Spithead. This set 
was presented to the Queen by Whistler in a portfolio 
of his own design, a fact that emphasized the disagree- 
able impression caused among his admirers by the sale 
of the Windsor collection of his etchings in which this 
presentation set was included. 

Like their predecessors, the later etchings embody a 



ETCHINGS 119 

purely personal vision recorded in a purely personal 
manner. To their technical qualities practical etchers 
have brought their warm support, and even the ama- 
teur with a very little study and comparison can dis- 
tinguish the special distinction of the flexible line and 
the evanescent gradations of tone by which mystery 
and romantic charm are brought into the prints as into 
the subtlest of the paintings. It is a matter of concern 
to the collector that much of the effect depends upon 
the printing, the line becoming less and less insistent. 
An experienced critic has said with reason that "no 
printer can print a good proof from a bad plate, but 
per contra, a maladroit printer would surely spoil the 
effect of the finest plate in the world." Whistler man- 
aged to give a luminous quality to the darkest of his 
prints, and his subject invariably lies bathed in am- 
bient air. Plates from which impressions have been 
made, both by professional printers and by him, reveal 
the artistic value of his touch upon the copper as upon 
any other material. With his light films of ink he 
made his impressions enchantingly poetic where in 
the hands of even accomplished craftsmen the same 
plate became comparatively prosaic. Each proof, as 
Mr. Wedmore has said, is practically a painting by his 
hand and the fastidious care of a collector bent upon 
securing a characteristic and representative example 
is abundantly justified. Even where the choice lies 
among impressions each of which Whistler himself has 
printed a range is possible. There is the difference in 
paper and the difference in the inks used, an impres- 



120 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

sion in brown ink having an absolutely other pictorial 
effect from one printed in black ink. Each proof of 
the Venice Nocturne is different from the rest ; in one 
instance, as in the proof owned by Mr. Babbott, it is a 
pure night effect with the gentlest possible gradation 
of tones ; in another it is evening or early morning with 
a band of light in the water and sky. In certain im- 
pressions a granular effect has been given to the dark- 
est shadow and the wiping has been done with a down- 
ward stroke. These variations are of importance only 
as they meet the taste of the collector. Each copy is 
beautiful and has an individuality, and each represents 
the same skill that produced the nocturnes in colour, 
dealing in this case with printer's ink instead of pig- 
ment. 

Many of the subjects of the etchings are portraits 
and these have frequently the extraneous interest of 
representing members of the talented group in which 
Whistler moved during his early years. There is 
Astruc — A Literary Man from the poet and sculptor 
who posed for the music master in Manet's Lecon de 
Musique, and who appears in the etching with bushy 
dishevelled hair, thick beard and reflective, slightly ab- 
sent eyes. There was Becquet, also a sculptor but 
represented as "a fiddler"; a third sculptor, Drouet, 
furnished the model for a magnificent head that was 
etched, M. Duret says, in two sittings with five hours 
of pose. There was Axenfeld and later the Leyland 
family and there was Swinburne. There were also 
portraits of Whistler himself, the earliest, made before 



ETCHINGS 121 

1858, showing a mobile face with alert eyes and an ex- 
pression interrogative and keen, and already dealing 
with comparisons and measurements. 

Numerically, Whistler's etchings are not yet fixed 
within definite limits. The subjects have considerably 
exceeded four hundred and of each subject there are 
usually several known states — and still they come. 
The prices of the rarer and finer impressions have 
mounted to so great a height within the past few years 
as to be in themselves picturesque. In Mr. Wedmore's 
book on Fine Prints, published in 1897, he says: 

"As to the prices of Whistlers in the open mar- 
ket? Well, they increase, unquestionably. Some of 
the very greatest rarities, it may be remembered, have 
never appeared in the auction-room. There are half- 
a-dozen, I suppose, for any one of which, did it appear, 
forty or fifty guineas would cheerfully be paid. . . . 
The time when Mr. Heywood sold his Whistlers was 
the fortunate time to buy. A First State of the Rag- 
Gatherers was sold then for less than two pounds; a 
First of the Westminster Bridge (then called "The 
Houses of Parliament") for about five pounds, and 
many quite desirable things went for a pound apiece — 
or a few shillings." 

At the sale of Mr. Hutchinson's collection in 1892 
an impression of The Palaces brought less than fifty 
dollars (£8 15s.) ; at the Carter sale of 1905 an early 
impression brought three hundred and ninety dollars, 
or more than eight times as much, and the winter of 
1906 saw this later price doubled. At the Hutchinson 



122 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

sale an impression of the exquisite plate called The 
Garden sold for less than a tenth of what an impres- 
sion brought at the Carter sale. At the sale of Dr. 
Edward Riggle's collection at Sotheby's in 1901 the 
rare Second State of The Kitchen sold for seventeen 
pounds and five shillings ; at the Carter sale less than 
four years later a Second State brought three hundred 
and sixty dollars, or more than four times as much. 

At the Carter sale a fine impression of the Nocturne 
with the early morning effect brought seven hundred 
and twenty-five dollars, a price that was noted as 
record-breaking. In the winter of 1906 at a dealer's 
sale a fine impression of the Nocturne brought fifteen 
hundred dollars. These comparisons are of little 
value as indicating the future prices of the etchings, 
but they show the spirit in which Whistler's work is 
now received. The less important plates — and this 
perhaps is more significant — have risen in price pro- 
portionately. A good impression of the charming 
little Fulham was sold last winter by one dealer for 
twenty-four dollars, but at a special exhibition during 
the same winter it brought nearly twice as much. 

It would be quite impossible at the present time to 
form a complete collection of Whistler's etchings and 
there are as yet no signs that it ever will be easier for 
collectors of modest means to gather a number of the 
more beautiful examples of his work into their 
Solander boxes. 



LITHOGRAPHS 



CHAPTER SEVENTH. 



Lithographs. 



WHISTLER'S attention was turned to litho- 
graphy in 1878 when Mr. Thomas Way de- 
scribed to him the process that had then been 
in use about eighty years and was just emerging from 
the discredit into which it had been cast by the purely 
commercial and detestable chromos produced by its 
means. He was not the first to use the lovely and 
responsive medium with the respect it deserves. The 
very year that he began to work on the stone a large 
collection of Daumier's lithographs were on exhibition 
at the Durand-Ruel galleries in Paris, attesting that 
artist's noble command of his pliable instrument, 
Gavarni's work was ended and had included a wide 
range of technical felicities, the German Menzel had 
produced his series with brush and scraper. Dela- 
croix, Decamps, Corot and RafTet all had made 
artistic use of the medium. Fantin-Latour already 
had adopted it as a means of expression for the emo- 
tions inspired in him by music. Whistler, therefore, 
would have had no excuse for doubting its possi- 
bilities. That he did not doubt them is shown by his 
adventurous plunge into the most difficult subjects 
with perfect confidence in the power of the stone to 
yield ultimately successful results. 

He at first proposed to issue privately a limited num- 
ber of impressions to subscribers under the title Art 



126 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

Notes, but the response was so small that the idea was 
abandoned. Mr. Theodore Watts, editor of Piccadilly, 
promptly asked for illustrations to that periodical and 
four drawings were made: The Toilet, Early Morn- 
ing, the Tall Bridge and Broad Bridge. Only two, 
The Toilet and Broad Bridge, were issued, as the mag- 
azine then failed. After 1878 lithography lapsed in 
his interest until 1887, when he again took it up and 
produced the larger number of his subjects. He 
worked very carefully as in everything that he at- 
tempted, sometimes on the stone and again on transfer 
paper, in which case he usually worked on the stone 
after the drawing had been transferred, enriching and 
completing it. 

His lithographs, innocent as the rest of his work of 
symbolic or historic intention, commemorate delight- 
ful aspects of life in Brittany, Devonshire, Paris, 
Rouen, London and other places explored by the artist 
for their intimate and finer sides. It is curious to look 
at such a drawing as the Little London with its em- 
bankment and bridges, its public buildings and the St. 
Paul's dome, or such a drawing as the Savoy Pigeons 
with Lambeth Palace and the Houses of Parliament, 
with barges passing under Charing Cross Bridge, and 
the endless stream of vehicles and passers-by asso- 
ciated with the great city, and reflect from what an 
enormous heap of material Whistler deduced his deli- 
cate designs. He dealt with the vast cumbrous exces- 
sive mass of the town in its most gregarious form. He 
depicted its movement, its industry, its immensity, its 



'::':;-"" A 






THE HOROSCOPE. 
(From Lithograph.) 



LITHOGRAPHS 127 

richness, without once losing his head and making his 
scheme too big for his means. 

He is equally happy in a genre which he enters more 
frequently in his lithographs than in any other of his 
mediums, in the little pictures, that is, of personal in- 
cidents — The Old Smith's Story; La Blanchisseuse de 
la Place Dauphine; Tete-a-tete in the Garden; The 
Clock-Makers, Paimpol; etc. These are quiet little 
stories of the day, like those of Daudet, in which, ap- 
parently, the artist dropped something of his exigent 
aversion to descriptive titles ; many of the names being 
in themselves pictures of very definite suggestion. 
La Belle Dame Endormie, La Belle Jardiniere, Con- 
fidences in the Garden, The Horoscope, Afternoon 
Tea, all these give access to the little scene depicted. 
And the scene itself wears in the lithographs a softer 
charm than in the etchings, owing chiefly, no doubt, 
to the softer character of the chalk line, but also a little 
to the fact that here Whistler was frankly experiment- 
ing and consequently not quite so sharp and sure in his 
treatment, and yet was sufficiently learned in his art to 
know precisely what he was trying for and that he 
could get it. How far he was a master of lithographic 
technique none but the initiated may say. So high an 
authority as Mr. Way recently has declared that it is 
"likely to be many years before there comes another 
master to add to the many sides of lithography, others 
than those in each of which Whistler has left a master- 
piece," but Whistler himself called forth this eulogy 
by referring to himself as "a beginner" in the art as 



128 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

late as 1896, when he had been familiar with it for 
nearly twenty years and had worked in it consecu- 
tively for about half as long. In a certain sense, per- 
haps, he was a beginner and always would have re- 
mained one. It is hardly probable that he would ever 
have produced much with the idea of illustrating 
merely technical problems, or of seeking for that rea- 
son the qualities that would bring out the fullest re- 
sources of the medium. He was first and foremost 
an artist, not an expert practitioner, and nothing in 
the world, we may imagine, interested him so much as 
the artistic expression of his subject. It was a now 
historic mistake to call him an "amateur prodigue" 
and he had his own bitter word or two for amateurs. 
Nevertheless, it would take something from his ex- 
traordinary perfection if the trace of the amateur were 
subtracted from his accomplishment. An artist not 
less exacting than he in other materials has noted that 
unless there is a little of the amateur in a man's work 
it hardly can be ranked as art and it is precisely the 
unprofessional note in the lithographs that gives them 
their enchanting grace. Nowhere else except in his 
pencil and pen and ink drawings does he so gaily re- 
veal his knowledge that "art and joy go hand in hand." 
The difficulty of the medium is just enough to add zest 
to the conquering, and its beauty is rewarding to an 
extreme degree. The black or grey line or wash, 
showing, as it does, against the white ground has 
peculiar charms for an artist in love with the thing 
seen rather than with the method of reproduction, and 



LITHOGRAPHS 129 

the method is free from that rebellion of the material 
which makes etching a species of battle between the 
artist and his instrument. 

Precisely because he did not regard any method as 
of more importance on its technical than on its artistic 
side Whistler demanded extraordinary results, and 
was not satisfied with anything short of supreme suc- 
cess in producing the final artistic effect. Conse- 
quently many of his lithographs, like the finer of his 
etchings, are of course marvellous from the point of 
view of the technician who keeps within the known 
bounds of the process. With the result in mind from 
the beginning as the important matter Whistler ex- 
tended its capacity to the furthest limits of his require- 
ments. 

In the wonderful lithotint Early Morning, for ex- 
ample, the stone was called upon to reproduce that 
mystery of air and water which he had won with oils, 
with etching and with pastel. With repeated revision 
and labour the effect was gained, and a comparison of 
two of the states shows the pains spent upon it. The 
scene is the river at Battersea, with a group of build- 
ings stretched along the horizon, a bridge in the dis- 
tance, and in the foreground some barges and two men 
leaning on a bar. In the first state the clouds in the 
sky are heavy with sharp edges, and both the sky and 
river are murky in tone. By scraping and re-etching 
the cloud edges and heavy darks were removed until 
an exquisite suggestion of light stealing into the air 
was gained, and in the second state the soft mists of 



130 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

dawn hang over the horizon. The note of highest 
light was also transferred from the sky at the left to 
the shirt or blouse of a longshoreman at the right of 
the foreground where it completes with entire felicity 
the delicately suggested pattern of light playing 
through the composition. In the same way other sub- 
jects were transformed. The Priest's House-Rouen 
is so changed that what was a light house in the first 
state is a dark one in the second. The Blacksmith in 
the first state is gray and dim and in the finished state 
brilliant and rich in colour. It is suggestive of the 
unremitting attention to reality which survived in 
Whistler's art all his distaste for realism that when he 
made a rather dark drawing of his life-long intimate, 
the Thames, he had the stone taken back to his room 
in the Savoy Hotel that he might have nature to refer 
to while correcting the defects of the first impression. 
A comparison between Whistler's lithographs and 
those of Fantin-Latour is interesting as showing how 
Whistler's art diverged in this medium from that of 
his early companion. Fantin as we know was a mu- 
sician by instinct and training and, true to his wor- 
shipping disposition, in his lithographs he erected 
monuments to different composers, striving to illus- 
trate with the chalk the music of Berlioz, Rossini, 
Wagner, Schumann and Brahms. If we look at one 
of his later prints of a scene in a garden, we see at 
once how he meant to convey not merely the impres- 
sion but all the possible data of dense foliage, marble 
fountains, moonlit sky, and, in the action of the 




\ 




S. I 



1 // *.* I 



v. 



# 1 



if / 

1/' 



I 



LITHOGRAPHS 131 

figures, a drama of incident and emotion worthy 
of a large canvas. All the surface is covered, 
aerial perspective is rendered by marked gradations 
of tone, objects are modelled in detail and the forms 
have the roundness of high relief. He managed to do 
all this without loss of delicacy in the result, but noth- 
ing could be more different from the synthesis em- 
ployed by Whistler, whose lithographs and chalk 
drawings have just the look of having been made in a 
temporary undurable medium which from the nature 
of the materials it is appropriate they should have. 

In his coloured lithographs, of which there are half 
a dozen subjects, Whistler has justified all that he has 
ever claimed for the charm of unpremeditated effects 
and apparently unlabourious notes of passing tones 
and tints. His Yellow House-Lannion is perhaps the 
most engaging of the number. Its brown roof 
patched with yellow lichen, the green woodwork of its 
windows, its faint purplish shadows, plunge the mind 
into contemplation of remembered loveliness in colour 
and atmosphere, of unforgotten old white buildings 
bathed in light and touched with the tone of time. 
Coloured inks and the process are not to be thought 
of in connection with the mellow sentiment of the 
perfect little print. All the coloured prints, however, 
illustrate the possibility of combining a number of 
colours in a modern lithograph without missing the 
sense of their resting like fragments of tinted light on 
a surface suffused with a harmonising tone, the sense 
that we gain from the best of the old Japanese wood- 



132 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

blocks. But the peculiar richness and softness of the 
old Japanese print is not there, and it is tempting to 
believe that the reason such an artist as Whistler could 
not in his coloured prints produce an effect of har- 
mony and tone equal to that obtained by the Eastern 
colour-print artists is simply this — that the pure and 
costly colours used by the Japanese artists of the eight- 
eenth century were not at his disposal. In the Draped 
Figure, reclining, we have another illustration of the 
theory of colour repetition analysed by Whistler in 
his letter to Fantin and shown in so many of his paint- 
ings. The principle again is perfectly carried out 
without the sense of disintegrated colour given by the 
Impressionists, and in this instance the white ground 
affords no aid in achieving a general harmony. In 
the Lenox Library copy the cap is reddish purple with 
a pale green band and the green appears again in the 
folds of the thin drapery, hardly tinging it. The yel- 
low of the hair is repeated in the fan. The red of the 
flushed cheeks is suggested throughout the flesh-tones 
and the drapery of the couch is touched with red. The 
outlines are grey and a faint greyish tone shimmers 
on the surface of the couch. The blue that is quite 
distinct in the spots on the porcelain jar flutters across 
the background merely staining it, and a hint of it is 
in the figure of the fan and in the edge of the drapery 
that lies upon the floor. The purple of the cap is seen 
again in the butterfly signature. The paper of this 
copy is Japan, "extra thin" and of pearly whiteness. 
It is difficult to convey in words any idea of the ethe- 



$j ± ^ -: m*mm . 



; 





"THE GOSSIPS "-AJACCIO. 

Reproduced by kind permission of R. A. Canfield, Esq. 



LITHOGRAPHS 133 

real lightness of the whole effect in which, notwith- 
standing its diaphaneity a crisp succinctness of touch 
is maintained 

In the new catalogue of the lithographs brought out 
by Mr. Way, a second and revised edition of the one 
published in 1896, thirty subjects have been added to 
the one hundred and thirty originally catalogued and 
described, but only a few of these were drawn, he says, 
later than 1896. In many cases only a half-dozen 
proofs were pulled, and in very few cases as many as 
thirty. This will add, no doubt, to the zest of collect- 
ors and to the final market value of the rarer subjects, 
and an unfortunate circumstance noted by Mr. Way 
will increase the difficulty already experienced of pro- 
curing fine proofs of the greater number of the litho- 
graphs. It seems that shortly after the first edition 
of the catalogue was issued all the stones with Whist- 
ler's drawings upon them were withdrawn from the 
keeping of his printers and placed in the cellars of his 
solicitors, where they remained until about a year 
after his death, when an edition of twenty-five proofs 
was reprinted from certain of them by Mr. Goulding 
and the drawings erased from the stones. "Now 
lithographic stones with drawings upon them require 
attention from time to time," Mr. Way explains, "espe- 
cially if they are grained stones, as the greater part of 
Whistler's were, else the ink dries too hard, so that 
when they are next taken in hand after a long inter- 
val, they are liable to suffer serious deterioration in 
the effort made to recover the printing qualities. The 



134 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

delicate work weakens by neglect, and the stronger 
parts are apt to become overstrong in the printer's 
effort to recover the weaker. The result is a muddy, 
heavy-looking print when compared with an early 
proof." As only fifty-five out of almost one hundred 
subjects handed over to Whistler's solicitors were ex- 
hibited at the time of the exhibition of the reprints 
made after Whistler's death, Mr. Way fears that 
many of the stones thus suffered irreparable harm. 

It is only recently that Whistler's lithographs have 
been regarded with the respect accorded to his etch- 
ings, and even now the best and rarest of them, if it is 
in the market at all, may be purchased for less than 
half the price brought by a Whistler etching of equal 
beauty and rarity. But the time undoubtedly will 
come when a fine proof of the Yellow House-Lannion 
or the ineffably beautiful figure called The Horoscope 
or the exquisitely tender and pathetic drawings of the 
artist's wife that express so movingly his inner feeling 
will be immoderately desired. In the meantime lovers 
of art of but moderate means may well rejoice that 
they have within their reach a number of examples of 
Whistler's art absolutely autographic in character; 
and, thanks to his scrupulous conscience as an artist, 
as beautiful in their way as the paintings. 

Note : Since the above was written a beautiful proof of The Yellow 
House at Lannion has brought three hundred and 'seventy-five dollars, 
nearly four times the price it was offered to the same collector less 
than ten years ago. 



ON WHISTLER'S THEORY OF ART 



w 



CHAPTER NINTH. 

On Whistler's Theory of Art. 

HEN we think of the art of the Nineteenth 
Century in its richer manifestations, how 
does Whistler come into the mind? As 
expressing a tendency of modern times or as cor- 
recting modern tendency by the permanent classic 
ideal? Did he move in a round so narrow that 
the great people of the past would be justified in 
asking him the question framed for them by one 
of his critics: "Was, then, our time so impoverished 
that this seemed wealth to it?" or did he touch his 
time on many sides and respond freely to its various 
solicitations ? In attempting to see him justly at this 
so short range, it is necessary to recall something of 
what has been accomplished by his contemporaries. 
We may doubt if ultimately this will be considered an 
age of poor endeavour or meagre performance. It has 
given birth to two important landscape schools in 
France, the so-called "Barbizon School" and that of 
the "Impressionists," and each school has marked in 
its own way a point of view completely original and 
almost new — one, the expression in landscape art of 
intensely personal sentiment ; the other, the expression 
of science consciously applied in the representation of 
natural phenomena. In England appeared one 
painter of landscape who neither developed a school 
nor belonged to one. — Turner, who died in 1851, at- 



138 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

tacked and championed for much that he was not and 
little known or loved for what he was. Constable's 
influence, on the other hand, extended over more than 
one country and made the early years of the Nine- 
teenth Century years of departure on the road to 
ideals in art previously only foreshadowed by isolated 
examples. 

In figure-painting there were many evidences of 
strong individuality among men of diverse tempera- 
ments. Manet was but one year older than Whistler ; 
Watts fourteen years and Rossetti six years older. 
If he was unlike all these, they were equally unlike 
each other, so that he neither was an isolated example 
of originality in the sense that he belonged to no 
school nor in the sense that he only in his day was 
original. There surely never was a time when it 
could be said more truly than in the latter half of the 
Nineteenth Century that a school of isolated original 
painters existed. Nevertheless, as we look back over 
the period covered by his life of sixty-nine years, we 
seem to be able to grasp a few general tendencies and 
to observe in what direction the current of the age 
carried these individual argosies. Nothing is more 
certain than that they were not borne toward dille- 
tantism. If we compare them with the art of France 
during the reign of Louis XV. or the art of England 
in the Eighteenth Century, we perceive at once how 
little patience the artists of the Nineteenth Century, in 
these two countries at least, had with artificiality in 
the ordinary acceptation of the word. Even where 




THE DOORWAY— VENICE. 

(Pastel.) 

Reproduced by kind permission of R. A. Canfield, Esq. 



ON WHISTLER'S THEORY OF ART 139 

they went back, as did Burne- Jones, to a form of ex- 
pression that might be classed as spiritually baroque 
and aenemic, they did not so much assume a virtue 
which they had not as clothe a virtue which they dis- 
tinctly had with a form unfitted to it. The "sincerity" 
of Burne- Jones was indubitable, but it had not force 
enough to guide his workmanship. We can imagine 
a fastidious craftsman applying to his art the words 
of Gautier : 

"F%, du rhythme commode, 
Comme un Soulier trop grand/' 
The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood was moved by the 
same impulse toward reality as the Impressionists. 
The difference between the two schools was one of 
mental and imaginative grasp. In France, almost 
invariably so far as the masters were concerned, 
together with the impulse toward reality went the 
desire to realize the unseen. It was not enough for 
Monet to paint the surface of the natural world, he 
was impelled to search the sources of movement and 
vibration in air and light and to know why appear- 
ances were as they were, in order intellectually to 
create instead of imitatively to reproduce them. Nor 
was it enough for Monet to paint a portrait of Faure 
as Hamlet in which the identity of the Shakespearean 
character was superficially indicated; he added his 
analysis of Faure's point of view and depicted such a 
Hamlet as was framed in the opera-singer's mind. 
Material detail as these men used it is surcharged with 
significance and Whistler pushed significance to its 



140 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

extreme limit, but with them the significance takes a 
positive and with him a relative position. Mr. 
Brownell has indicated the nature of Monet's achieve- 
ment in getting as near as possible to the individual 
values of objects as they are seen in nature : "Things 
now drop into their true place/' he says, "look as they 
really do, and count as they count in nature, be- 
cause the painter is no longer content with giv- 
ing us nature itself. Perspective acquires its act- 
ual significance, solids have substance and bulk as well 
as surfaces, distance is perceived as it is in nature, by 
the actual interposition of atmosphere, chiaro-oscuro 
is abolished ; the ways in which reality is secured being 
in fact legion the moment real instead of relative 
values are studied." So far as this Whistler, as we 
have seen, went with the most distinguished of his 
contemporaries ; like them, he was completely serious, 
and in representing reality he looked beyond the ex- 
ternal, but he went farther than any of them in his 
discrimination of the relations between what he 
painted and what he did not paint, which constitutes, 
I think, his chief claim to originality. Nearly all 
painters appear in their work to be confining them- 
selves to the subject immediately in hand. They 
appear to be seeing it not merely as an organic whole, 
in the case of the capable ones, but as an isolated whole 
without connections with cognate subjects. For this 
reason their pictures, however various and differ- 
entiated, are apt to have in common the note of em- 
phasis suggesting a certain provincialism in the artist 



ON WHISTLER'S THEORY OF ART 141 

or at least an absence of that peculiar cosmopolitan 
quality that brings continually into evidence the pres- 
ence of a back-ground, invisible as well as visible, and 
composed of constantly changing, flowing relations 
between all noted phenomena. 

This quality Whistler possessed to such a degree 
that it dominates his complete accomplishment. Wher- 
ever we see one of his pictures we recognize it and 
feel that it is the true stamp of his individuality. In 
his portraits he not only refrains from flattering his 
sitters, — that is the crudest possible statement of it, — 
he refrains from giving them an undue relative im- 
portance. His exacting research into the separate 
individualities leaves him curiously free to obey the 
intuition by which he knows how much to insist upon 
the value of those individualities. Apparently the 
Comedie Humaine was continually in his mind as a 
woven tapestry might hang in a studio against which 
to try the tone and colour of the figure to be repro- 
duced. His Carlyle, under this appraising observa- 
tion, as we already have noted, is not the great man 
of the world, but one of the world's great men and not 
the greatest of them. In his Master Smith of Lyme 
Regis, to take another conspicuous example of his 
typical treatment of a subject, he has introduced the 
elements of ruggedness and physical force and plain 
thinking in sufficient proportion to indicate the man's 
class and type, but he has made no outcry over his 
possession of these qualities. "There are others," he 
seems to reflect as he develops the simple physiogomy 



142 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

and the result is that the blacksmith is not heroically 
and exclusively a blacksmith, but one of the many en- 
dowed with emotions and ideas including those appro- 
priate to his trade, but not limited to them. In litera- 
ture we all know the tendency toward embodying a 
single characteristic in a given personage and sup- 
pressing everything else to give relief to this; but in 
art the tendency has not so often been analysed and the 
eye, moreover, is cheated into ignoring it by aesthetic 
appeals of colour and form ; it nevertheless exists to a 
wide extent. It is necessary to see Whistler's pictures 
in a gallery with the work of other painters to under- 
stand his extraordinary ability, not merely to make his 
subjects complex, but to make them a part of a still 
more complex world. This is the imaginative ration- 
ale upon which he constructs his presentations of 
people. 

In his portraits of external nature there is the same 
imaginative feeling for the vast back-ground and the 
small part played by any single scene in the continuous 
and overwhelming panorama. His streets belong to 
the town, his waves to the ocean, his rivers and their 
banks to the wide horizons on which they vanish, his 
doming skies to the envelope of air and mists that 
wraps about the whirling earth. The universe rolls 
away on every side from the fragment of his choice, 
and those for whom the universal has a supreme 
importance are conscious that under no pressure of 
momentary interest is he guilty of shutting out the 
view. The immediate view is never the main purpose 
















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"SHOP "-ALGIERS. 
(Pen and Ink.) 
Reproduced by kind permission of R. A. Canf.eld, Esq. 



ON WHISTLER'S THEORY OF ART 143 

of his picture. However he may concentrate atten- 
tion upon a single point of interest, there is always 
the gradual recession of an infinitely extended en- 
vironment. And his unobtrusiveness seems to be less 
that of modesty than of wisdom. It is the quality of 
civilisation ; the lesson of cities, of wide experience, of 
the travelled mind. He is uncompanioned in the way 
he suggests through his single figures or tiny can- 
vases the "remplissage" of life. It is, of course, the 
perfection of the initiated temper to treat the simplest 
theme with rich reserve ; to make it so natural as to be 
a tissue of complication precisely as in real life it 
would be, and there is nothing so simple that Whistler 
does not find in it cross-references and inter-relations, 
yet there is nothing, not even the carnival of London, 
so complex that he does not simplify it by the exacting 
eliminations of his art. What is' this but the mood of 
modern civilization? It is a mood that in Whistler's 
painting does not appeal to the many, the austere 
method of its expression being against a popular ap- 
peal, yet it is the mood that most reveals the attitude 
of the modern mind toward the populous scene. It is 
far removed from the old, simple awe in the presence 
of natural forces ; it is not of the nature even of rever- 
ence, but it marks intense appreciation of the scale on 
which the universe is constructed, and it testifies to 
the sense of proportion at the root of all greatness. 
We cannot then think of its possessor as moving in a 
narrow round, nor could we if his work contained but 
one of the numerous fields of observation in which 



144 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

Whistler was at home. Had he been only the painter 
of night, as most commonly he is called, his revelation 
of its dim secrets would have entitled him to our ac- 
knowledgment of his penetrating and soaring imag- 
ination. Had he been only a portrait painter his 
descriptions of human characters would have made it 
impossible to speak of him as restricted. Had he 
traversed his career with no other tool of trade than 
his etching needle, we should have been obliged to 
recognize the amplitude of his mental equipment. In 
reviewing the fruitful outcome of all his labours, we 
must decide that more than any other modern painter 
he is the classic exponent of the modern spirit. He 
has left innumerable sides of our energies and activi- 
ties to be noted by others. He has not attempted to 
exhaust the sources of our multitudinous variety. He 
has taken what pleased him and left the rest, immense 
in bulk and importance. He cannot, therefore, be 
said to represent us in all our phases and combinations, 
or even in many of them, yet precisely as one of his 
portraits expresses the concentrated inner character 
of his subject ; his work as a whole portrays the inmost 
tendency of modern civilisation, the tendency toward 
relative judgments. 

This not only is the theory of his art to be deduced 
from his work, but the sane deduction to be made 
from his own words. His exaltation of the casual 
note is altogether in the line of his initiated vision ; his 
imperturbable defence of the painter's limitation to 
the technical aspect of his problems is so much evi- 




CQ 

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o o w 

a 

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ON WHISTLER'S THEORY OF ART 145 

dence of his knowledge of the supreme importance of 
form as the vehicle of spirit, an importance that we 
remember and forget as often as great art passes into 
and out of the range of vision ; his recognition of art 
as only one language of those that make thought 
knowable is most of all the stamp of his discriminating 
faculty. Let us recall his sturdiest affirmation: "So 
art," he says, "has become foolishly confounded with 
education, that all should be equally qualified. 

"Whereas, while polish, refinement, culture and 
breeding are no way arguments for artistic result, it 
is also no reproach to the most finished scholar or 
greatest gentleman in the land that he be absolutely 
without eye for painting or ear for music — that in his 
heart he prefer the popular print to the scratch of 
Rembrandt's needle, or the songs of the hall to 
Beethoven's 'C minor symphony.' Let him but have 
the wit to say so, and not feel the admission a proof of 
inferiority." Only an artist with the highest regard 
for relative values could thus see his art, and thus 
define it as unnecessary to the life of the mind. 

One more impression of his quality may be added to 
this incomplete notation, not for its special but for its 
general importance. He has been described truth- 
fully as the apostle of good taste, with a minifying in- 
flection suggested in the phrase. But good taste no 
longer is a negligible quantity in any practice of life. 
It involves an incorruptible sense of refined beauty 
which in itself is a kind of art. It involves particu- 
larly a sense of the appropriate which is not the gram- 



146 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

mar but the style of poetry. It implies sacrifices and 
restraints worthy of a passionate dedication, and so 
far as passion is felt in Whistler's art, it is felt as the 
passion of decorum known to the modern as to the 
ancient in its highest function. "Dulci et decorum 
est" not only to die for one's country, but to live for 
one's ideal. This with singleness of mind he did. 



INTRODUCTION TO LIST OF 

WHISTLER'S PICTURES 



INTRODUCTION 

TO LIST OF 

WHISTLER'S PICTURES 



In the subjoined list no claim is made either to comprehen- 
siveness or to complete accuracy. In spite of the kindness of 
many owners of Whistler's pictures in furnishing data con- 
cerning them, the reluctance or unresponsiveness of others has 
made it impossible to carry the list beyond what may be con- 
sidered merely the nucleus for a better one. In its pres- 
ent condition, however, it serves two purposes. It acquaints 
the general public with a very large number and variety of 
Whistler's works which not only exist but have been seen 
by a considerable proportion of the art-lovers of America, 
France and England; showing more convincingly than could 
any bald statement of the fact how extended was his 
range. It also indicates to students the sources to which to 
go for descriptions of individual pictures in which their interest 
may be aroused, and gathers together in convenient form for 
reference the titles contained in the three memorial catalogues 
already out of easy reach, many of even the larger libraries 
and museums not possessing the set. In the majority of in- 
stances the titles taken from these catalogues have been trans- 
ferred without change, but any important difference in titles 
given in two or more of the catalogues has been noted, as where 
the "Nocturne, Southampton Water" of the Boston catalogue 
becomes the "Nocturne Black and Gold, Entrance to South- 
ampton Water" of the London catalogue. In a few cases a 
wrongly named picture has been given its correct title as where 
the "Nocturne, Blue and Gold," belonging to the Hon. Percy 



150 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

Wyndham was given in the London catalogue as "Nocturne, 
Blue and Silver," the owner having kindly informed the 
compiler of the error. Where fragments of information not 
appearing in the catalogues have been offered by owners, they 
have been included, and a few descriptions of pictures listed 
only in the Boston catalogue, and there undescribed, have been 
added. The names of the present owners are not given. The 
names of those who lent the pictures to the various exhibitions 
are taken directly from the catalogues; but in many cases the 
pictures have since changed hands. Where the dimensions 
of the pictures are given only in the French catalogue, the 
French system of numbering has been retained, and for the 
sake of simplification in reference the French abbreviations 
H. and L. have been used in quoting from the Paris catalogue 
and the English abbreviations H. and B. in quoting from the 
London and American catalogues. A brief list of titles 
gathered from recent books on Whistler and not in- 
cluded in the Memorial Exhibitions, has also been added, with 
a number of items from catalogues of exhibitions held before 
the artist's death. These catalogues ought still to furnish a 
rich field for investigation as many of them have not been at 
the disposal of the present compiler. There are a few titles 
of pictures, not in the catalogues, which have been fur- 
nished by the owners. The total presents an appearance which 
could not be satisfactory to the professional cataloguer. Its 
excuse lies in the fact that it makes a beginning from which 
a creditable ending may be brought about. It is to be expected 
that a full list of Whistler's works will one day appear from 
authoritative sources. Until that time it is hoped that the 
present imperfect list will be found of convenience, and any 
owners who will be good enough to supply corrections, or 
information concerning pictures not included, will confer a 
favour upon the compiler and the publishers. The difficulty 
of distinguishing between works of the same or nearly the 



LIST OF PAINTINGS 151 

same title and executed in the same medium, is great, and 
nothing is more to be desired than exact measurements taken 
of the canvas or paper without the frame. "Sight measure- 
ments" or measurements taken inside of the frame are very 
misleading. The contribution of exact measurements where 
they are lacking will be of especial value. There is reason to 
believe that the measurements given in the catalogues are not 
always exact. In the case of The Little Blue Bonnet, for ex- 
ample, the measurements given in the edition de luxe of the 
London catalogue are 23x18, and it is not stated whether this 
is a sight measurement or a measurement without the frame. 
When Mr. Macbeth bought the picture he measured it both 
inside and without the frame, rinding it in the former case 
22i/ 2 xl7 ; and the latter 25%xl8# t 



AN INCOMPLETE LIST OF 

WHISTLER'S PAINTINGS 

IN OIL AND IN WATER COLOUR, PASTELS. AND DRAWINGS 



AN INCOMPLETE LIST 

OF 

WHISTLER'S PAINTINGS 

IN OIL AND IN WATER COLOUR, 
PASTELS, AND DRAWINGS 

Compiled from the Catalogue of the Memorial Exhibition at Copley Hall, 
Boston (February, 1904), the Catalogue of the Memorial Exhibition 
at the New Gallery, London (from February 22, to April 15, 1905) 
and the Catalogue of the Memorial Exhibition at Paris (May, 1905). 
(It is stated in the Paris Catalogue that where no names are given 
the pictures were lent by Whistler's heirs.) 

(1). "Gold and Brown 

Portrait of Mr. James McNeill Whistler" (Oil). 
Boston Catalogue: Page 3, No. 1. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 30, No. 29. 

(H. 0,470— L. 0,650) 
Lent by George W. Vanderbilt, Esq. 

(2). The Fete on the Sands— Ostend 

Boston Catalogue: Page 3, No. 2. 
Lent by Miss Ellen S. Hooper. 

(3.) "Chelsea Shops" 

Boston Catalogue: Page 3, No. 3. 
Lent by Charles L. Freer, Esq. 

(4). The Grey House 

Boston Catalogue: Page 3, No. 4. 
Lent by Charles L. Freer, Esq. 



156 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

(5). "Green and Gold— 

The Great Sea." 

Boston Catalogue: Page 3, No. 5. 

Paris Catalogue: Page 59, No. 103. 

(H. 0,130— L. 0,223, inside the frame) 
Lent by Charles L. Freer, Esq. 

(6). "The Butcher Shop" 

Boston Catalogue: Page 3, No. 6. 
Lent by Charles L. Freer, Esq. 

(7). On the Normandy Coast 

Boston Catalogue: Page 3, No. 7. 
Lent by Henry Harper Benedict, Esq. 

(8). Sketch of a Girl* 

Boston Catalogue: Page 3, No. 8. 
Lent by E. B. Haskell, Esq. 

(9). Grey and Silver 

Trouville.f 

Boston Catalogue: Page 3, No. 9. 
Lent by W. K. Bixby, Esq. 

(10). Chelsea Houses 

Boston Catalogue: Page 4, No. 10. 
Lent by J. M. Sears, Esq. 

(11). "A Note in Red" 

Boston Catalogue: Page 4, No. 11. 
Lent by Charles L. Freer, Esq. 



(* Mr. E. B. Haskell, the owner of this picture, writes that it was painted in Ven- 
ice in 1882, arid given by the artist to his friend William Graham, a landscape- 
painter of merit, living in Venice at the time.) 

(t Mr. W. K. Bixby, the owner of this picture, writes that it was painted in 1901.) 



LIST OF PAINTINGS 157 

(12). Marine — Grey and Green 

Boston Catalogue: Page 4, No. 12. 

Paris Catalogue: Page 44, No. 63. 

(H. 0,510— L. 0,750) 
Lent by Mrs. Potter Palmer. 

(13). Study of the Sea from a Boat 

Boston Catalogue: Page 4, No. 13. 
Lent by Mrs. Martin Brimmer. 

(14). "Petite Mephiste" 

Boston Catalogue: Page 4, No. 14. 

Paris Catalogue: Page 37, No. 52. (Title in French 

Catalogue: "Petite Mephisto.") 

(H. 0,240— L. 0,197, inside the frame) 
Lent by Charles L. Freer, Esq. 

(15). "Harmony in Green and Rose: 

The Music Room" (Oil). 
Boston Catalogue: Page 4, No. 15. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 20, No. 7. 

(H. 0,940— L. 0,710, inside the frame) 
Lent by Col. Frank J. Hecker. 

(16). Seascape 

Boston Catalogue: Page 4, No. 16. 
Lent by J. M. Sears, Esq. 

(17). Girl in Black (Oil) 

Boston Catalogue: Page 4, No. 17. 
Lent by Mrs. John C. Bancroft. 

(18.) "An Arrangement in Flesh Color and Brown" 

Boston Catalogue: Page 4, No. 18. 
(Name not given.) 



158 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

(19). "The White Symphony" 

Boston Catalogue: Page 4, No. 19. 

Paris Catalogue: Page 22, No. 11. 

(H. 0,450— L. 0,600, inside the frame) 
Lent by Charles L. Freer, Esq. 

The title in the French Catalogue is under the di- 
vision with the general title: Les Six Projects — "The 
Six Schemes," and reads as follows : 

"No 1. Symphonie en blanc. Les trois jeune filles 
— (The White Symphony, Three Girls.)" The follow- 
ing five titles are also under the same general title, 
and in the French Catalogue are numbered, as in- 
dicated by the figures in brackets preceding the 
titles. 

(20). [No. 4]. "Symphony in White and Red" 

Boston Catalogue: Page 5, No. 20. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 23, No. 14. 

(H. 0,450— L. 0,600, inside the frame) 
Lent by Charles L. Freer, Esq. 

(21). [No. 2]. "Venus" 

Boston Catalogue: Page 5, No. 21. 

Paris Catalogue: Page 23, No. 12. 

(H. 0,600— L. 0,450, inside the frame} 
Lent by Charles L. Freer, Esq. 

(22). [No. 3]. "Symphony in Green and Violet" 

Boston Catalogue: Page 5, No. 22. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 23, No. 13. 

(H. 0,610— L. 0,450, inside the frame)' 
Lent by Charles L. Freer, Esq. 



LIST OF PAINTINGS 159 

(23). [No. 6]. "Symphony in Blue and Pink" 

Boston Catalogue: Page 5, No. 23. 

Paris Catalogue: Page 24, No. 16. 

(H. 0,450— L. 0,600, inside the frame) 
Lent by Charles L. Freer, Esq. 

(24). [No. 5]. "Variations in Blue and Green" 

Boston Catalogue: Page 5, No. 24. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 24, No. 15. 

(H. 0,450— L. 0,600, inside the frame) 
Lent by Charles L. Freer, Esq. 

(25). Arrangement in Black and Brown 

"Miss Rosa Corder" (Oil). 
Boston Catalogue: Page 5, No. 25. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 27, No. 21. 

Lent by R. A. Canfield, Esq. ( H - 1 m « 93 "- L - °- m - 93 ) 

(26). "The Little Blue and Gold Girl" (Oil) 

Boston Catalogue: Page 5, No. 26. 

Paris Catalogue: Page 36, No. 48. 
Lent by Charles L. Freer, Esq. ( H - <>,720-L. 0,485) 

(27). "Grey and Silver 

La Petite Souris." The Little Mouse. 

Boston Catalogue: Page 5, No. 27. 

Paris Catalogue: Page 34, No. 41. 
Lent by Miss R. Birnie-Philip. ( H - °> 51 °— L - 0,310) 

(28). Symphony in White [In the French Catalogue it is 

"Symphony in White, No. 2"] 

"The Little White Girl." 

Boston Catalogue: Page 5, No. 28. 

Paris Catalogue: Page 19, No. 5. 
Lent by Arthur Studd, Esq. ( H - 0,760-L. 0,490) 



160 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

(29). Une Jeune Fille des Rues 

Boston Catalogue: Page 5, No. 29. 
Lent by Mrs. Frank Gair Macomber. 

(30). "Symphony in Violet and Blue" (Oil.) 
Boston Catalogue: Page 6, No. 30. 

Lent by Al f red Attmore Pope, Esq. 

(31). "The Thames in Ice" 

Boston Catalogue: Page 6, No. 31. 

Paris Catalogue: Page 41, No. 57. 

(H. 0,750— L. 0,540, inside the frame) 
Lent by Charles L. Freer, Esq. 

(32). "Rose and Silver 

La Princesse du Pays de La Porcelaine." (Oil.) 
Signed "Whistler, 1864." 

Boston Catalogue: Page 6, No. 32. 

Paris Catalogue-' Page 21, No. 9. 
Lent by Charles L. Freer, Esq. ( H - 1,98— L. 1,15) 

(33). Violet and Silver 

"Deep Sea"* (Oil). 
Boston Catalogue: Page 6, No. 33. 
Lent by John A. Lynch, Esq. 

(34). "Westminster Bridge" (Oil). Signed "Whistler, 
1862," in the left lower corner. In the London 
Catalogue the title is "The Last of Old West- 
minster," in the Paris Catalogue, "Old West- 
minster." 
Boston Catalogue: Page 6, No. 34. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 41, No. 56. 
London Catalogue: Page 88, No. 35. 
Lent by AlfredAttmorePope, Esq. ( H - 22i/ 2 — B. 30) 

♦Exhibited in the Salon of the Champs de Mars, 1894. Bought from the painter 
in October of that year by John A. Lynch, of Chicago. 




Arrangement in Black and Gold. 

" LE COMTE ROBERT DE MONTESQUIOU- 
FEZENSAC." 

By kind permission of R. A. Canfield, Esq. 



LIST OF PAINTINGS 161 

(35). "Portrait de Madame S 

Vert et Violet." 

Boston Catalogue: Page 6, No. 35. 

Paris Catalogue: Page 29, No. 26. 

Lent by Mrs. Cobden Sickert. ( H - °' 86 °— L - °> 6 1°) 

(36). The Master Smith of Lyme-Regis (Oil) 

Boston Catalogue: Page 6, No. 36. 

Paris Catalogue: Page 30, No. 27. 

London Catalogue: Page 84, No. 24. 

(H. 193,4— B. 11%) 
Lent by the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. 

(37). "Variations in Flesh Color and Green 

The Balcony" (Oil). 

Boston Catalogue: Page 6, No. 37. 

Paris Catalogue: Page 22, No. 10. 

(H. 0,590— L, 0,470, inside the frame) 
Lent by Charles L. Freer, Esq. 

(38). "Carmen" (Oil) 

Bold, masculine type of head against a wine-col- 
oured background, red shawl over the head, very thinly 
painted on coarse canvas. 
Boston Catalogue: Page 6, No. 38. 

Lent by Alfred Atmore Pope, Esq. 

(39). Arrangement in Black and Gold 

"Le Comte Robert de Montesquiou-Fezensac" (Oil). 
Full length figure dressed in black against dark 
background. The floor is yellowish-brown, the Count 
holds a slender, yellowish-brown cane in his right hand 
and carries a cloak lined with silvery grey over his left 
arm ; he wears a grey glove on his right hand. 
Boston Catalogue: Page 7, No. 39. 
Lent by R. A. Canfield, Esq. 



162 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

(40). "Grenat et Or 

Le Petit Cardinal." 

Boston Catalogue: Page 7, No. 40. 

Lent by Miss R. Birnie-Philip. 

(41). "The Little Red Glove" • (Oil) 

Boston Catalogue: Page 7, No. 41. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 33, No. 39. 

(H. 0,500— L. 0,305, inside the frame) 

Lent by Charles L. Freer, Esq. 

(42). Coast of Brittany" (Oil) 

Boston Catalogue: Page 7, No. 42. 

London Catalogue: Page 79, No. 11. 

(H. 36— B. 46) 
Lent by Ross Winans, Esq. 

(43). The Little Rose of Lyme-Regis (Oil) 

Boston Catalogue: Page 7, No. 43. 

Paris Catalogue: Page 34, No. 42. 

London Catalogue: Page 85, No. 26. 

(H. 19^— B. 12) 
Lent by the Boston Museum of Fine Arts. 

(44). Rose and Gold: "Pretty Nellie Brown" * (Oil) 

A half-length portrait of a young girl. She wears 
a deep rose-coloured jacket over a pale pink blouse. 
Hair blonde-brown, wine coloured background. 
Boston Catalogue: Page 7, No. 44. 

(H. 1934— B. 12) 
Lent by Frank Lusk Babbott, Esq. 



(* Mr. Frank L. Babbott says that this picture was painted on up to 1900, the year 
in which he bought it.) 



LIST OF PAINTINGS 163 

(45). Portrait of a Lady (Oil) 

Full-length figure of lady in black riding habit 

against black background. 

Boston Catalogue: Page 7, No. 45. 
Lent by Alexander J. Cassatt, Esq. 

(46) L'Andalusienne (Oil) 

Boston Catalogue: Page 7, No. 46. 

Paris Catalogue: Page 29, No. 25. 

(H. 1 m. 87— L. o. m. 88) 
Lent by John H. Whittemore, Esq. 

(47). "Harmony in Red 

Lamplight." In Paris Catalogue is added: Portrait 

of Mrs. J. McNeill Whistler. 
Boston Catalogue: Page 7, No. 47. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 28, No. 23. 

(H. 1 m. 88— L. o. m. 89) 
Lent by Miss R. Birnie-Philip. 

(48). A Chelsea Girl (Oil) 

Full length figure of young girl in short skirts. She 

wears a black dress, a white apron (very low in tone) 

and a yellow scarf at the neck. Stands with arms 

akimbo. 

Boston Catalogue: Page 7, No. 48. 
Lent by Alexander J. Cassatt, Esq. 

(49). Interior 

Boston Catalogue: Page 8, No. 49. 
Lent by Miss Fanny Hooper. 

(50). Unfinished Portrait 

Boston Catalogue: Page 8, No. 50. 
Lent by Miss Ellen S. Hooper. 



164 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

(51). "Blue and Silver— 
Trouville." 

Boston Catalogue: Page 8, No. 51. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 43, No. 60. 

(H. 0,590— L. 0,720, inside the frame) 

Lent by Charles L. Freer, Esq. 

(52 )'. Study of a Head 

Boston Catalogue: Page 8, No. 52. 

Lent by Francis Bartlett, Esq. 

(53). Portrait of Pablo Sarasate 

Arrangement in Black (Oil). 
Boston Catalogue: Page 8, No. 53. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 27, No. 20. 
London Catalogue: Page 82, No. 19. 

(H. 84— B. 40) 1 
Lent by the Carnegie Institute of Pittsburgh. 

(54). Blue and Silver, The Blue Wave, Biarritz (Oil) 
Signed "Whistler, 1862," in the lower left corner. 
Boston Catalogue: Page 8, No. 54. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 41, No. 55. 
London Catalogue: Page 86, No. 29. 

(H. 24i/ 2 — B. 34) 1 
Lent by Alfred Attmore Pope, Esq. 

(55). Whistler With a Hat (Oil) 1 . Signed "Whistler" in the 
lower left corner. 
Boston Catalogue: Page 8, No. 55. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 17, No. 1. 

(H. 0,490— L. 0,390) 
Lent by Samuel P. Avery, Esq. 



LIST OF PAINTINGS 165 

(56). Nocturne in Blue and Silver: "Cremorne Lights" (Oil) 

Boston Catalogue: Page 8, No. 56. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 46, No. 69. 

(H. 0,500— L. 0,740) 
Lent by Arthur Studd, Esq. 

(57). "Variations in Pink and Grey 

Chelsea." 

Boston Catalogue: Page 8, No. 57. 
Lent by Charles L. Freer, Esq. 

(58). Nocturne, Southampton Water'' (Oil) 

Boston Catalogue: Page 9, No. 58. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 45, No. 67. 
London Catalogue: Page 78, No. 9. (Title in Lon- 
don Catalogue, "Nocturne, Black and Gold, En- 
trance to Southampton Water.") 

(H. 19— B. 29) 
Lent by the Art Institute of Chicago. 

(59). Nocturne— "Westminster" (Oil) 

The sky and water are pale turquoise blue. A grey 
shadow covers the land and the buildings. Two 
squares of pale yellow light are seen in the tower, and 
a light reflection is in the water at the right. 
Boston Catalogue: Page 9, No. 59. 

Lent by John G. Johnson, Esq. 

(60.) Nocturne 

Battersea. 

Boston Catalogue: Page 9, No. 60. 

Paris Catalogue: Page 47, No. 71. 

(H. O. m. 495— L. 1 m. 065) 
Lent by George W. Vanderbilt, Esq. 



166 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

(61). "Nocturne — Grey and Silver — 

Chelsea Embankment." 

Boston Catalogue: Page 9, No. 61. 

Paris Catalogue: Page 48, No. 73. 

(H. 0,610— L. 0,450) 
Lent by Charles L. Freer, Esq. 

(62). Arrangement in Black and Brown 

The Fur Jacket (Oil). 

Boston Catalogue: Page 9, No. 62. 

London Catalogue: Page 80, No. 14. 

(H. 73— B. 34*4) 
Lent by William Burrell, Esq. 

(63). "Nocturne— Blue and Silver— 

Battersea Reach." 

Boston Catalogue: Page 9, No. 63. 

Paris Catalogue: Page 47, No. 70. 

(H. 0,490— L. 0,755, inside the frame) 
Lent by Charles L. Freer, Esq. 

(64). Nocturne in Black and Gold 

"The Falling Rocket." 

Boston Catalogue: Page 9, No. 64. 

Paris Catalogue: Page 45, No. 66. 
Lent by Mrs. Samuel Untermyer. 

(65). "Nocturne— Blue and Silver— 

Bognor." > 

Boston Catalogue: Page 9, No. 65. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 46, No. 68. 

(H. 0,500— L. 0,840, inside the frame) 
Lent by Charles L. Freer, Esq. 



LIST OF PAINTINGS 167 

(66). Nocturne in Black and Gold 

"The Fire Wheel." 

Boston Catalogue: Page 9, No. 66. 

Paris Catalogue: Page 45, No. 65. 

(H. 0,530— L. 0,750); 
Lent by Arthur Studd, Esq. 



(67). Nocturne in Blue and Silver 
"The Lagoon" — Venice. 
Boston Catalogue: Page 10, No. 67. 

Lent by R. A. Canfield, Esq. 



(68). "Nocturne— Opal and Silver" 

Boston Catalogue: Page 10, No. 68. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 49, No. T5. 

(H. 0,190— L. 0,250, inside the frame)' 

Lent by Charles L. Freer, Esq. 



(69). "The Sea" 

Boston Catalogue: Page 10, No. 69. 

Paris Catalogue: Page 43, No. 61. 

(H. 0,520— L. 0,950) 
Lent by John H. Whittemore, Esq. 

(70). The Thames (In Paris Catalogue "On the Thames") 
Boston Catalogue: Page 10, No. 70. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 42, No. 58. 

(H. 0,500— L. 0,800) 
Signed "Whistler, '63," in the lower left corner. 

Lent by Mrs. Potter Palmer. 



168 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

(71). Symphony in White, No. 1 

"White Girl" (Oil). 

Signed "Whistler, 1862," in the upper right corner. 
Boston Catalogue: Page 10, No. 71. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 18, No. 4. 
London Catalogue: Page 89, No. 37. 

(H. 84— B. 42) 
(Title in London Catalogue is "The Woman in 
White, Symphony in White, No. 1.") 
Lent by John H. Whittemore, Esq. 

(72). A Street in Old Chelsea 

Boston Catalogue: Page 10, No. 72. 
Lent by Denman W. Ross. Esq. 

(73). Symphony in Grey and Green 

"The Ocean." 

Boston Catalogue: Page 10, No. 74. 

Paris Catalogue: Page 43, No. 62. 

(H. 0,800— L. 0,910) 
Lent by R. A. Canfield, Esq. 

(74). The Schooner 

Boston Catalogue: Page 11, No. 77. 
Lent by Miss A. B. Jennings. 

(75). Grey and Gold 

"The Golden Bay," Ireland (Water-Colour). 
Boston Catalogue: Page 11, No. 78. 

Butterfly to the left near the lower edge of the frame. 
Lent by R. A. Canfield, Esq. 

(76). "Rose and Brown- 
La Cigale." 
Boston Catalogue: Page 11, No. 79. 

Lent by Charles L. Freer, Esq. 



LIST OF PAINTINGS 1169 

(77). Portrait of Man (Oil) 

Boston Catalogue: Page 11, No. 80. 
London Catalogue: Page 107, No. 83. 

(H. 11%— B. 6) 
(In the London Catalogue it is "Portrait of E. G. 
Kennedy, Esq.") 
Lent by E. G. Kennedy, Esq. 

(78). "Wortley— 

Note in Green." 

Boston Catalogue: Page 11, No. 81. 
Lent by Charles L. Freer, Esq. 

(79). "The Sea and Sand" 

Boston Catalogue: Page 11, No. 82. 
Lent by Charles L. Freer, Esq. 

(80). "Rose and Gold — 

The Little Lady Sophie of Soho" (Oil)'. 
Boston Catalogue: Page 11, No. 83. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 32, No. 37. 

(H. 0,630— L. 0,520, inside the frame) 
Lent by Charles L. Freer, Esq. 

(81). "La Note Rouge" 

Boston Catalogue: Page 11, No. 84. 
Lent by Hon. G. A. Drummond. 

(82). Blue and Silver 

Dieppe. 

Boston Catalogue: Page 12, No. 85. 
Lent by Miss Amy Lowell. 



170 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

(83). "The Thames near Erith" 

Boston Catalogue: Page 12, No. 86. 
Lent by Charles L. Freer, Esq. 

(84). Green and Silver (Water-Colour) 

The Photographer. 

A stretch of sea and sky with waves breaking on 

a beach where several figures are standing, one of 

them, the photographer, busy with his instrument 

Boston Catalogue: Page 12, No. 87. 
Lent by Howard Mansfield, Esq. 

(85). Marine 

Boston Catalogue: Page 12, No. 88. 
Lent by Miss Mary Hooper. 

|(86). Blue and Silver (Water-Colour) 
Forget Me Not. 

A nude figure with a purple cap; at the left, a slen- 
der plant. 
Boston Catalogue: Page 12, No. 89. 

Lent by Howard Mansfield, Esq. 

(87). "Green and Silver 

Beaulieu." 

Boston Catalogue: Page 12, No. 90. 
Lent by Charles L. Freer, Esq. 

(88). Opal and Gold (Water-Colour) 

"Evening — Pourville." 

Sea and sky with small boat at the left — purplish 

horizon. Butterfly at right of centre near lower margin. 

Boston Catalogue: Page 12, No. 91. 
Lent by R. A. Canfield, Esq. 



LIST OF PAINTINGS 171 

(89). Green and Blue 

The Fields — Loches (Water-Colour — body-colour on 

linen). 

Green fields separated from the background of low 
hills by a little fence. Slim trees to the left. A group 
of animals near the fence. A greenish blue sky fading 
almost to white at the horizon line. Butterfly in red- 
dish-brown. 

Boston Catalogue: Page 12, No. 92. 
Lent by Howard Mansfield, Esq. 

r (90). "Venetian Courtyard" (Pastel) 

Boston Catalogue: Page 12, No. 93. 

Paris Catalogue: Page 78, No. 163. 

(H. 0,270— L. 0,190, inside the frame) 
Lent by Charles L. Freer, Esq. 

(91). Blue and Silver 

Boston Catalogue: Page 13, No. 94. 
Lent by Mrs. John C. Bancroft. 

(92). Near Calais 

Boston Catalogue: Page 13, No. 95. 
Lent by Miss A. B. Jennings. 

(93). Green and Blue (Water-Coloury 

"The Dancer." 

A slender female figure in green gauzy robes. 

Gold coloured ribbons cross her chest and form a 

girdle. She wears a red cap with a blue border. 

Boston Catalogue: Page 13, No. 96. 
Lent by R. A. Canfield, Esq. 



172 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

(94). "ZuyderZee" 

Boston Catalogue: Page 13, No. 97. 

Lent by Col. Frank J. Hecker. 

(95). Violet and Silver (Water-Colour) 
"The Afternoon Dream." 

Woman in thin robes lying on a couch; a child is 
also on the couch. The woman faces the spectator; 
only the back of the child is seen. Blue butterfly to 
the left of the centre near the top. 
Boston Catalogue: Page 13, No. 98. 

Lent by R. A. Canfield, Esq. 

(96). "Blue and Silver 

The Chopping Channel." 

Boston Catalogue: Page 13, No. 99. 

Lent by Charles L. Freer, Esq. 

(97). "A Note in Green" 

Boston Catalogue: Page 13, No. 100. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 56, No. 89. 

(H. 0,240— L. 0,160) 
Lent by Charles L. Freer, Esq. 

(98). "Nocturne— Black and Red 
Back Canal, Holland'* 
Boston Catalogue: Page 13, No. 101. 
'Paris Catalogue: Page 63, No. 121. 

(H. 0,210— L. 0,270, inside the frame) 

Lent by Charles L. Freer, Esq. 



LIST OF PAINTINGS 173 

(99). "Nocturne — Grey and Gold 

Canal, Holland" 

Boston Catalogue: Page 13, No. 102. 

Paris Catalogue-' Page 62, No. 119. 

(H. 0,283— L. 0,225, inside the frame) 

Lent by Charles L. Freer, Esq. 

(100). Portrait of Mrs. Whibley 

Boston Catalogue: Page 14, No. 103. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 55, No. 86. 

(H. 0,265— L. 0,185) 
(In the Paris Catalogue the title is "Rose and Sil- 
ver : Portrait of Mrs. Whibley.") 

Lent by Charles L. Freer, Esq. 

(101). Young Girl, Standing 

Boston Catalogue: Page 14, No. 104. 

Lent by Albert Rouillier, Esq. 



(102). "Petit Dejeuner 
Note in Opal." 
Boston Catalogue: Page 14, No. 105. 

Lent by Charles L. Freer, Esq. 



(103). "Nocturne- 
Grand Canal, Amsterdam" 
Boston Catalogue: Page 14, No. 106. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 63, No. 122. 

(H. 0,245— L. 0,270, inside the frame) 

Lent by Charles L. Freer, Esq. 



174 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

(104). "Grey and Silver— 

The Mersey" 

Boston Catalogue: Page 14, No. 107. 

Paris Catalogue: Page 61, No. 113. 

(H, 0,145— L. 0,255, inside the frame) 
Lent by Charles L. Freer, Esq. 

(105). The Thames 

Blue and Silver. 

Boston Catalogue: Page 14, No. 108. 
Lent by Mrs. Frank Gair Macomber. 

(106). Off the Brittany Coast 

Boston Catalogue: Page 14, No. 109. 
Lent by Henry Harper Benedict, Esq. 

(107). "The Gossips"— Ajaccio (Water-Colour, partly out- 
lined with Pen and Ink) 
Boston Catalogue: Page 14, No. 110. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 57, No. 95. 

(H. 0,270— L. 0,180) 
Lent by R. A. Canfield, Esq. 

(108). "Blue and Gold 

The Rose Azalea." 

Boston Catalogue: Page 14, No. 111. 

Paris Catalogue: Page 71, No. 138. 

(H. 0,255— L. 0,165) 
Lent by Charles L. Freer, Esq. 

(109). "A Venetian Doorway" (Pastel) 

Boston Catalogue: Page 15, No. 112. 

Paris Catalogue: Page 78, No. 165. 

(H. 0,273— L. 0,185, inside the frame) 
Lent by Charles L. Freer, Esq. 



LIST OF PAINTINGS 175 

(110). Blue and Silver 

"Afternoon — The Channel." 

Dark, chopping sea and cloudy sky. Dark blue 

butterfly to the lower right. 

Boston Catalogue: Page 15, No. 113. 
Lent by R. A. Canfield, Esq. 

(111). "Morning Glories" (Pastel) 

Boston Catalogue: Page 15, No. 114. 

Paris Catalogue: Page 71, No. 136. 

(H. 0,235— L. 0,135) 
Lent by Charles L. Freer, Esq. 

(112). Mother and Child (Pastel) 

Boston Catalogue: Page 15, No. 115. 
Lent by John H. Wrenn, Esq. 

(113). The Japanese Dress (Pastel, with black crayon out- 
line on brown paper) 

Woman standing, holding Japanese umbrella in 
right hand. Colours of umbrella, deep yellow, pale 
blue, and white. The robe is decorated with a pattern 
of peacock blue, flesh colour and light blue. The under- 
robe is grey-blue with touches of light blue and of 
bright rose. The sash is vermilion. Cap flesh colour, 
with band of blue. Butterfly is peacock-blue. The 
hair is yellow. 
Boston Catalogue: Page 15, No. 116. 

Lent by Howard Mansfield, Esq. 

(114). "Blue and Violet" (Pastel) 

Boston Catalogue: Page 15, No. 117. 

Paris Catalogue: Page 71, No. 140. 

(H. 0,255— L. 0,150) 
Lent by Miss R. Birnie-Philip. 



176 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

(115). "May" (Early Pastel) 

Boston Catalogue: Page 15, No. 118. 

Paris Catalogue: Page 68, No. 127. 

(H. 0,90— L. 0,157) 
Lent by Miss R. Birnie-Philip. 

(116). The Captive (Pastel) 

A woman is seated on a sofa and is restraining a 
child who tries to climb over the arm of the sofa. The 
outline is in black on brown paper, with touches of 
yellow and of white. Butterfly on the back of the 
sofa. 
Boston Catalogue: Page 15, No. 119. 

Lent by R. A. Canfield, Esq. 

(117). "Sleeping" (Pastel) 

Boston Catalogue: Page 15, No. 120. 

Lent by Charles L. Freer, Esq. 

(118). "The Purple Cap" (Pastel) 

Boston Catalogue: Page 15, No. 121. 

Paris Catalogue: Page 73, No. 146. 

(H. 0,260— L. 0,165) 
Lent by Charles L. Freer, Esq. 

(119). Two Standing Figures (Pastel) 

Boston Catalogue: Page 16, No. 122. 

Lent by Mrs. Frank Gair Macomber. 

(120). The Palace 

Pink and White (Pastel). 

Boston Catalogue: Page 16, No. 123. 

Lent by H. O. Havemeyer, Esq. 




8E 



Blue and Violet. 
"IRIS." 
(Pafld.) 

Reproduced by kind permission of R. A. Canfield, Esq. 



LIST OF PAINTINGS 177 

(121). Greek Girl (Pastel) 

Boston Catalogue: Page 16, No. 124. 
Lent by H. O. Havemeyer, Esq. 

(122). Blue and Violet 

"Iris" (Pastel) 

Boston Catalogue: Page 16, No. 125. 

Paris Catalogue: Page 73, No. 145, 

(H. 0,272— L. 0,180) 
Lent by R. A. Canfield, Esq. 

(123). "Mother and Child— 

The Pearl" (Pastel) 
Boston Catalogue: Page 16, No. 126. 
Lent by Charles L. Freer, Esq. 

(124). Archway, Venice (Pastel) 

A child is leaning against the left wall; standing 
figure in the middle; woman's figure within archway. 
Colours: red, light green and dark green. Woman 
wears an orange shawl and there is a little blue in the 
lpper part of an arched doorway seen through the 
larger arch. In this doorway are also light pink and 
yellow. A green shutter is above the woman's left 
shoulder. Rose colour in the wall above deepening to 
crimson in the window above the doorway seen at the 
right. 
Boston Catalogue: Page 16, No. 127. 

Lent by Howard Mansfield, Esq. 

(125). "Writing on the Wall" (Pastel) 

Boston Catalogue: Page 16, No. 128. 

Paris Catalogue: Page 69, No. 131. 

(H. 0,260— L. 0,160, inside the frame) 
Lent by Charles L. Freer, Esq. 



178 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

(126). The Dancing Girl (Pastel) 

The figure is drawn with much movement, yellow 

drapery. 

Boston Catalogue: Page 16, No. 129. 
Lent by Howard Mansfield, Esq. 

(127). "Rose and Red 

The Little Pink Cap" (Pastel). 
Boston Catalogue: Page 16, No. 130. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 73, No. 144. 

(H. 0,255— L. 0,180, inside the frame) 
Lent by Charles L. Freer, Esq. 

(128). "The Green Cap" (Pastel) 

Boston Catalogue: Page 17, No. 131. 
Lent by Charles L. Freer, Esq. 

(129). A Japanese Woman (Pastel) 

Boston Catalogue: Page 17, No. 132. 
Lent by Hon. John P. Elton. 

(130). "A Violet Note" (Pastel) 

Boston Catalogue: Page 17, No. 133. 
Lent by Charles L. Freer, Esq. 

(131). "Spring" (Pastel) 

Boston Catalogue: Page 17, No. 134. 
Lent by Col. Frank J. Hecker. 

(132). "Grey and Silver- 
Pier, Southend." 

Boston Catalogue: Page 17, No. 135. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 60, No. 109. 

(H. 0,145— L. 0,232, inside the frame) 

Lent by Charles L. Freer, Esq. 



LIST OF PAINTINGS 179 

(133). The Queen's Naval Jubilee, 1897 

Boston Catalogue: Page 17, No. 136. 

Lent by Miss Tuckerman. 

(134). "The Studio 

Note in Pink and Purple." 

Boston Catalogue: Page 17, No. 137. 

Lent by Charles L. Freer, Esq. 

(135). Grey and Silver 

"The Golf Links"— Dublin (Water-Colour). 

Green fields, wild, cloudy sky. Butterfly in grey 
near lower right-hand corner. 
Boston Catalogue: Page 17, No. 138. 

Lent by R. A. Canfield, Esq. 

(136). "The Shop" 

An Exterior. 

Boston Catalogue: Page 17, No. 139. 

Lent by Mrs. Frances M. French. 



(137). Grey Note 

Mouth of the Thames. 

Boston Catalogue: Page 18, No. 140. 

Lent by Walter Gay, Esq. 

(138). Grey and Gold 

"Belle-Isle" (Water-Colour). 

Boston Catalogue: Page 18, No. 141. 

Paris Catalogue: Page 59, No. 106. 

(H. 0,205— L. 0,130) 
Lent by R. A. Canfield, Esq. 



180 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

(139). Marine 

Boston Catalogue: Page 18, No. 142. 
Lent by Miss Louisa C. Hooper. 

(140). Marine 

Boston Catalogue: Page 18, No. 143. 
Lent by Mrs. Bancel Lafarge. 

(141). "The Pink Cap" (Water-Colour) 

Figure standing with back toward spectator. Head 
turned in profile. Transparent drapery. Butterfly in 
grey outline a third of the way up at the left. 
Boston Catalogue: Page 18, No. 144. 

Lent by R. A. Canfield, Esq. 

(142). Schevingen (Water-Colour) 

Boston Catalogue: Page 18, No. 145. 
London Catalogue: Page 94, No. 42. 

(H. 4%—B. 8) 
(In London Catalogue the title reads, "Little 
Scheveningen : a grey note.") 
Lent by Walter Gay, Esq. 

(143). Blue and Silver (Water-Colour) 

"Morning" — Ajaccio. 

Pier with crowd of figures, crisp clouds in sky. 

Boston Catalogue: Page 18, No. 146. 
Lent by R. A. Canfield, Esq. 

(144). "The Sea Shore" 

Boston Catalogue: Page 18, No. 147. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 59, No. 104. 

(H. 0,205— L. 0,120, inside the frame) 
Lent by Charles L. Freer, Esq. 



LIST OF PAINTINGS 181 

(145). "Market, Ajaccio" (Pencil) 

Boston Catalogue: Page 19, No. 148. 

Paris Catalogue: Page 83, No. 186. 

(H. 0,120— L. 0,080) 
Lent by Miss R. Birnie-Philip. 

(146). "Ajaccio" (Pencil) 

Boston Catalogue: Page 19, No. 149. 
Lent by Miss R. Birnie-Philip. 

(147). "Ajaccio" (Sepia Wash) 

Boston Catalogue: Page 19, No. 150. 
Lent by Miss R. Birnie-Philip. 

(148). "Ajaccio" (Pencil) 

Bo st oil Catalogue: Page 19, No. 151. 
Lent by Miss R. Birnie-Philip. 

(149). "Algiers" (Pencil) 

Boston Catalogue: Page 19, No. 152. 
Lent by Miss R. Birnie-Philip. 

(150). "Ajaccio" (Sepia) 

Boston Catalogue: Page 19, No. 153. 
Lent by Miss R. Birnie-Philip. 

(151). "Green and Brown— Ajaccio" (Wash) 

Boston Catalogue: Page 19, No. 154. 
Lent by Miss R. Birnie-Philip. 

(152). "Ajaccio" (Pencil) 

Boston Catalogue: Page 19, No. 155. 
Lent by Miss R. Birnie-Philip. 



182 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

(153). "Old House, Canterbury, England" (Pen and Ink) 
Boston Catalogue: Page 19, No. 156. 

Lent by Miss R. Birnie-Philip. 

(154). Street Scene in London 

Fog (Pastel). 

Boston Catalogue: Page 20, No. 157. 

Lent by Mrs. D. B. Flint. 

(155). "At Sea" (Pen and Ink) 

Figures leaning over the railing of a ship. Brown 
ink. Butterfly above the centre at the right. 
Boston Catalogue: Page 20, No. 158. 

Lent by R. A. Canfield, Esq. 

(156). "Street," Corsica (Pen and Ink) 

Boston Catalogue: Page 20, No. 159. 

Lent by R. A. Canfield, Esq. 

(157). "The Dancer" (No. 1) (Pen and Ink) 

The dancer has right foot raised and holds a closed 
fan. Butterfly to the left, below the centre. Drapery 
of figure transparent. 
Boston Catalogue: Page 20, No. 160. 

Lent by R. A. Canfield, Esq. 

(158). "The Forge" (Pencil) 

Very silvery in tone. Butterfly to the left of the 
centre. 
Boston Catalogue: Page 20, No. 161. 

Lent by R. A. Canfield, Esq. 



LIST OF PAINTINGS 183 

(159). "The Cafe"— Algiers (Pen and Ink) 

Two arched doorways, the larger at the left with a 

bench in front at one side, and an awning above. A 

tree cuts across the larger doorway. Butterfly to the 

left of the centre. 

Boston Catalogue: Page 20, No. 162. 
Lent by R. A, Canfield, Esq. 

(160). "Shop"— Algiers (Pen and Ink) 

Butterfly left centre. Little boy at right in front. 

Woman back of him inside of shop. 

Boston Catalogue: Page 20, No. 163. 
Lent by R. A. Canfield, Esq. 

(161). Algiers— "A Street" (Pen and Ink) 
Butterfly to the left of the centre. 
Boston Catalogue: Page 20, No. 164. 
Lent by R. A. Canfield, Esq. 

(162). "The Dancer" (No. 2) (Pen and Ink) 

The dancer has left foot raised, and holds open fan 

in right hand. Transparent drapery. Butterfly is at 

left under fan. 

Boston Catalogue: Page 20, No. 165. 
Lent by R. A. Canfield, Esq. 

(163). "Street"— Ajaccio (Pencil) 

Boston Catalogue: Page 20, No. 166. 
Lent by R. A. Canfield, Esq. 

(164). Fanny Leyland 

Boston Catalogue: Page 21, No. 167. 
Lent by John H. Wrenn, Esq. 



184 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

(165). The Evolution of the Butterfly (Pen and Ink) 

Boston Catalogue: Page 21, No. 168. 
Lent by Mrs. John C. Bancroft. 

(166). Sketch (Sepia Wash) 

Boston Catalogue: Page 21, No. 169. 
Lent by Mrs. Louise Chandler Moulton. 

(167). Twenty-two drawings and sketches done by Mr. 
Whistler while at school at Pomfret, Conn., about 
1850. 

Boston Catalogue: Page 21, No. 170. 
Lent by Samuel Hammond, Esq. 

(168). Cadet Drawings Under Instruction 

1. (Pen and Ink.) 2. (Wash.) 

Boston Catalogue: Page 21, No. 171. 
Lent by Dept. of Drawing, U. S. Military Academy, West 
Point, N. Y. 

(169). Chalk Drawing 

Boston Catalogue: Page 21, No. 172. 

Lent by Albert Eugene Gallatin, Esq. 

(170). Girl with a Fan (Pastel) 

Boston Catalogue: Page 21, No. 173. 
Lent by Howard Mansfield, Esq. 

(171). Woman with a Fan (Pastel) 

Boston Catalogue: Page 21, No. 174. 
Lent by Howard Mansfield, Esq. 

(172). Sunset Note (Pastel) 

Boston Catalogue: Page 21, No. 175. 
Lent by Howard Mansfield, Esq. 



LIST OF PAINTINGS 185 

(173). Model Resting (Pastel) 

Boston Catalogue: Page 22, No. 176. 

Lent by Howard Mansfield, Esq. 

(174). Model in Armchair (Pastel) 

Boston Catalogue: Page 22, No. 177. 

Lent by Howard Mansfield, Esq. 

(175). Model with a Fan (Pastel) 

Standing figure facing right, white gown. Fan 
with red figures held up to mouth; red sash. Bright 
white touch back of fan. 
Boston Catalogue: Page 22, No. 178. 

Lent by Howard Mansfield, Esq. 

(176). Portrait Study (Pastel) 

Very crisp black crayon outline of man with head 
resting on his hand, facing right. White shirt. 
Boston Catalogue: Page 22, No. 179. 

Lent by Howard Mansfield, Esq. 

(177). Portrait Sketch (Pastel) 

Black crayon outline of man. Full face. 
Boston Catalogue: Page 22, No. 180. 

Lent by Howard Mansfield, Esq. 

(178). Study for a Picture (Pastel) 

Three figures of women, bending figure at left, kneel- 
ing figure with flowers, standing figure with jug in 
right hand and Japanese parasol in left hand. 
Boston Catalogue: Page 22, No. 181. 

Lent by Howard Mansfield, Esq. 



186 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

(179). Nude Figure, Standing (Pastel) 

Figure faces to the right. Hair brown. Touches of 

white pastel back of figure. Touches of flesh colour on 

body. 

Boston Catalogue: Page 22, No. 182. 
Lent by Howard Mansfield, Esq. 

(180). Draped Figure, Standing (Pastel) 

Woman in long classic transparent draperies, blue 

cap. Stands with one arm resting on a shelf, 

the other hanging at her side. 

Boston Catalogue: Page 22, No. 183. 
Lent by Howard Mansfield, Esq. 

(181). Sketch of a Girl (Pastel) 

The girl is Florence Leyland. Yellow hair falls 
over her shoulders. She wears a flounced dress with 
touches of blue and rose in the flounces. The sash has 
rose-coloured lines in it and the cuff is white. 
Boston Catalogue: Page 22, No. 184. 

Lent by Howard Mansfield, Esq. 

(182). La Mere Gerard (Oil) 

Signed "Whistler" at the right 
Paris Catalogue: Page 17, No. 2. 
London Catalogue: Page 102, No. 68. 



(H. 11— B. 8) 



Lent by Algernon Charles Swinburne, Esq. 



(183). Head of An Old Man Smoking 

Signed "Whistler" at the right. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 18, No. 3. 

(H. 0,400— L. 0,350) 
Lent bv M. Drouet. 



LIST OF PAINTINGS 187 

(184). Tete de Paysanne (Oil) 

Paris Catalogue: Page 18, No. 3 bis. 
London Catalogue: Page 106, No. 80. 

(H. 9%— B. 6%) 
(Title in London Catalogue, "Tete de Femme"), 

Lent by Madame la Comtesse de Beam. 

(185). A White Note 

Paris Catalogue: Page 19, No. 6. * 

(H. 0,380— L. 0,320) 
Lent by Mrs. Cobden-Sickert. 

(186). "Endormie" 

Page 68, No. 126. 

(H. 0,183— L. 0,273) 

(187). Caprice in Purple and Gold: The Golden Screen 

Signed "Whistler, 1864." 
Paris Catalogue: Page 20, No. 8. 

(H. 0,460— L. 0,490, inside the frame) 

Lent by Charles L. Freer, Esq. 

(188). Arrangement in Black and Grey 

Portrait of "My Mother" (Oil). 
Paris Catalogue: Page 25, No. 17. 
London Catalogue: Page 83, No. 23. 

(H. 56— B. 64) 
Lent by the Musee National du Luxembourg. 

(189). Portrait of Miss Cicely Henrietta Alexander 
(Now Mrs. Bernard Spring Rice ) (Oil) 
Paris Catalogue: Page 26, No. 18. 
London Catalogue: Page 87, No. 32. 

(H. 74— B. 39) 
Lent by W. C. Alexander, Esq. 



188 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

[Mr. Alexander writes that this portrait was painted at 
Chelsea in 1874, and was begun just before that of Carlyle. 
The commission was given after Mr. Alexander had seen the 
portrait of the artist's mother.] 

(190). Portrait of Miss Alexander (Oil) 
Paris Catalogue: Page 26, No. 19. 
London Catalogue: Page 116, No. 109. 

(H. 74— B. 37) 
(In the London Catalogue the title is "Portrait of 
Agnes Mary, Miss Alexander.") 

Lent by W. C. Alexander, Esq. 

[Mr. Alexander writes that this picture was painted in the 
drawing-room of the Aubrey House, Kensington, W., which 
previously had been decorated by Whistler. The picture was 
left unfinished on account of the illness of Miss Alexander.] 



(191). Portrait of Mr. George W. Vanderbilt 
Paris Catalogue: Page 28, No. 22. 

(H. 2 m. 06— -L. o. m. 94) 

Lent by George W. Vanderbilt, Esq. 



(192). Rose and Gold: The Tulip 

Paris Catalogue: Page 29, No. 24. 

(H. 1 m. 90— L. o. m. 89) 
Lent by Miss R. Birnie-Philip. 

(193). Portrait of Doctor Davenport 

Paris Catalogue: Page 30, No. 28. 

(H. 0,580— L. 0,380) 
Lent by Dr. Isaac Davenport. 



LIST OF PAINTINGS 189 

(194). Le Philosophe (Oil) 

Paris Catalogue: Page 31, No. 30. 

London Catalogue: Page 111, No. 96. 

(H. 8%-B. 4%) 
Lent by Madame la Comtesse de Beam. 

(195). Portrait of Miss Annie Haden 

Signed "To Annie — Whistler" in lower right corner. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 31, No. 31. 

(H. 0,410— L. 0,270) 
Lent by M. Jerome Doucet. 

(196). The Rose Scarf 

Paris Catalogue: Page 31, No. 32. 

(H. 0,275— L. 0.200) 

(197). Ivoire et or. Portrait de Madame V. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 31, No. 33. 

(H. 0,650— L. 0,549) 
Lent by George W. Vanderbilt, Esq. 

(198). The Jade Necklace 

Paris Catalogue: Page 32, No. 34. 

(H. 0,500— L. 0,310) 

(199). The Boy in a Cloak 

Paris Catalogue: Page 32, No. 35. 

(H. 0,960— L. 0,690) 

(200). Brown and Gold: De Race 

Paris Catalogue: Page 33, No. 36. 

H. 0,500— L. 0,300) 

(201). Lily 

Paris Catalogue: Page 33, No. 38. 

(H. 0,610— L. 0,500) 



190 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

(202). Dorothy Seton. A Daughter of Eve 
Paris Catalogue: Page 33, No. 40. 

(H. 0,510— L. 0,310) 

(203). The Little London Sparrow 

Paris Catalogue: Page 34, No. 41 bis. 

(H. 0,500— L. 0,350) 
Lent by George W. Vanderbilt, Esq. 

(204). The Little Faustina 

Paris Catalogue: Page 35, No. 43. 

(H. 0,510— L. 0,300) 

(205). "La Toison rouge" 

Paris Catalogue: Page 35, No. 44. 

(H. 0,520— L. 0,320) 

(206). Portrait d'enfant 

Paris Catalogue: Page 35, No. 45. 

(H. 0,630— L. 0,490) 
Lent by George W. Vanderbilt, Esq. 

(207). Portrait of a Baby 

Paris Catalogue: Page 36, No. 46. 
London Catalogue: Page 105, No. 76. 

(H. 19%— B. 113/4) 
Lent by Brandon Thomas, Esq. 

(208). "Le bebe francais" 

Paris Catalogue: Page 36, No. 47. 

(Circular— 0,350) 

(209). Rose and Green. A Study 

Paris Catalogue: Page 36, No. 49. 

(H. 0,800— L. 0,510) 



LIST OF PAINTINGS 191 

(210). Ariel 

Paris Catalogue: Page 37, No. 50. 

(H. 0,225— L. 0,134) 

(211). Flesh Colour and Silver. The Card Players 

Paris Catalogue: Page 37, No. 51. 

(H. 0,134— L. 0,238) 

(212). The Little White Sofa (Oil) 

Paris Catalogue: Page 37, No. 53. 

London Catalogue: Page 112, No. 98. 

(H. 4— B. 6%) 
Lent by A. Arnold Hannay, Esq. 

(213). The Little Red Note 

Paris Catalogue: Page 38, No. 54. 

(H. 0,098— L. 0,155) 
Lent by H. Cust, Esq., M. P. 

(214). Crepuscule. Flesh Colour and Green. Valparaiso 

Signed ''Whistler, Valparaiso, '65/' in lower left 
corner. 

Paris Catalogue: Page 42, No. 59. 
London Catalogue: Page 110, No. 93. (Valparaiso 
Nocturne.) 

(H. 22— B. 29) 
Lent by W. Graham Robertson, Esq. 

(215). Grey and Silver. The Thames 

Paris Catalogue: Page 44, No. 64. 

(H. 0,610— L. 0,460) 

(216). Nocturne in Blue and Green 

Paris Catalogue: Page 48, No. 72. 

(H. 0,500— L. 0,500) 
Lent by W. C. Alexander, Esq. 



192 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

(217). Nocturne, Westminster, Grey and Gold 
Paris Catalogue: Page 48, No. 74. 

(H. 0,470— L. 0,300) 
Lent by A. A. Hannay, Esq. 

(218). The Sea. Britanny 

Paris Catalogue: Page 49, No. 76. 

(H. 0,095— L. 0,155) 

(219). Violet and Blue. The Little Bathers 

Perosquerie. 

Paris Catalogue: Page 49, No. 77. 

(H, 0,130— L. 0,215) 
Lent by A. A. Hannay, Esq. 

(220). St. Ives. The Beach 

Paris Catalogue: Page 49, No. 78. 

London Catalogue: Page 109, No. 88. 

(H. 8J^— B. 11%) 
Lent by Monsieur J. E. Blanche. 

(221). Note in Blue and Opal, the Sun Cloud 
Paris Catalogue: Page 50, No. 79. 

(H. 0,130— L. 0,225) 
Lent by Charles L. Freer, Esq. 

(222). The Little Red House 

Paris Catalogue: Page 50, No. 80. 

(H. 0,230— L. 0,145) 

(223). "Le blanchisseuse ; Dieppe" 

Paris Catalogue: Page 50, No. 81. 

(H. 0,255— L. 0,150) 

(224). The Little Forge; Lyme Regis 

Paris Catalogue: Page 50, No. 82. 

(H. 0,145— L. 0,245) 



LIST OF PAINTINGS 193 

(225). A Grey Note; Village Street 

Paris Catalogue: Page 50, No. 83. 

(H. 0,138— L. 0,227) 

(226). An Orange Note. The Sweet Shop 
Paris Catalogue: Page 51, No. 84. 

(H. 0,130— L. 0,222) 
Lent by Charles L. Freer, Esq. 

(227). The Canal. Amsterdam 

Paris Catalogue: Page 51, No. 85. 

(H. 0,150— L. 0,145) 

(228). Noir et Or. Madge O'Donoghue (Water-Colour) 
Paris Catalogue: Page 55, No. 87. 

(H. 0,240— L. 0,170) 
Lent by A. A. Hannay, Esq. 

(229). Harmony in Violet and Amber 
Paris Catalogue: Page 55, No. 88. 

(H. 0,245— L. 0,150) 
Lent by Charles L. Freer, Esq. 

(230). Gold and Brown. The Guitar Player 
Paris Catalogue: Page 56, No. 90. 

(H. 0,235— L. 0,148) 
(231). Bravura in Brown 

Paris Catalogue: Page 56, No. 91. 

(H. 0,270— L. 0,170) 
Lent by Charles L. Freer, Esq. 

(232). Draped Figure and Cupid 

Paris Catalogue: Page 56, No. 92. 

(H. 0,250— L. 0,175) 
Lent by Madame la Comtesse de Beam. 

(233). The Little Blue Cap 

Paris Catalogue: Page 57, No. 93. 

(H. 0,285— L. 0,190) 



194 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

(234). "Rose et argent. Fleurs de printemps" 
Paris Catalogue: Page 57, No. 94. 

(H. 284— L. 0,184) 
(235). Grey and Green. A Shop in Brittany (Water-Colour 
on Canvas) 
Paris Catalogue: Page 57, No. 96. 

(H. 0,155— L. 0,250) 
(236). Chelsea Children 

Paris Catalogue: Page 57, No. 97. 

(H. 0,110— L. 0,210) 
Lent by Charles L. Freer, Esq. 

(237) Chelsea Shops 

Paris Catalogue: Page 58, No. 98. 

(H. 0,140— L. 0,225) 

(238). Terry's Fruit-Shop; Chelsea 

Paris Catalogue: Page 58, No. 99. 

(H. 0,150— L. 0,210) 
(239). Moreby Hall 

Paris Catalogue: Page 58, No. 100. 

(H. 0,180— L. 0,270, inside the frame) 
Lent by Charles L. Freer, Esq. 

(240). Westminster from the Savoy 

Paris Catalogue: Page 58, No. 101. 

(H. 0,230— L. 0,145) 
(241). Note in Blue and Opal. Jersey 

Paris Catalogue: Page 58, No. 102. 

(H. 0,120— L. 0,240, inside the frame) 
Lent by Charles L. Freer, Esq. 

(242). The Opal Beach 

Paris Catalogue: Page 59, No. 105. 

(H. 0,156— L. 0,246, inside the frame) 
Lent by Charles L. Freer, Esq. 



LIST OF PAINTINGS 195 

(243). Violet and Silver. Low Tide. Belle Isle 
Paris Catalogue: Page 60, No. 107. 

(H. 0,140— L. 0,220) 
(244). Blue and Silver. Belle Isle 

(H. 0,220— L. 0,138) 
Paris Catalogue: Page 60, No. 108. 

(245). Southend Pier 

Paris Catalogue: Page 60, No. 110. 

(H. 0,168— L. 0,225, inside the frame) 
Lent by Charles L. Freer, Esq. 

(246). The Opal Sea 

Paris Catalogue: Page 61, No. 111. 

(H. 0,140— L. 0,220) 
Lent by Mrs. Cobden Sickert. 

(247). In the Channel 

Paris Catalogue: Page 61, No. 112. 

(H. 0,170— L. 0,270) 
Lent by Mrs. Charles Knowles. 

(248). Silver and Grey. The Fishing Fleet 
Paris Catalogue: Page 61, No. 114. 

(H. 0,130— L. 0,210) 
(249). A Note in Grey and Green. Holland 
Paris Catalogue: Page 62, No. 115. 

(H. 0,140— L. 0,230) 
(250). Sea and Sand; Domberg (Water-Colour) 
Paris Catalogue: Page 62, No. 116. 

(H. 0,220— L. 0,135) 
(251). Dordrecht (Water-Colour) 

Paris Catalogue: Page 62, No. 117. 

(H. 0,140— L. 0,220) 
(252). On the Sea Shore (Water-Colour) 
Paris Catalogue: Page 62, No. 118. 

(H. 0,138— L. 0,226) 



196 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

(253). Nocturne. Amsterdam in Winter ( Water-Colour) 
Paris Catalogue: Page 63, No. 120. 

(H. 0,195— L. 0,265, inside the frame) 
Lent by Charles L. Freer, Esq. 



THE FOLLOWING NUMBERS, FROM 254 TO 
306, ARE GROUPED IN THE FRENCH CAT- 
ALOGUE UNDER THE DESCRIPTIVE HEAD- 
ING "PASTELS AND DRAWINGS." 

(254). Croquis de la Serie des Voyages du Rhin (Pencil 
drawing) 1858 
■Paris Catalogue: Page 67, No. 122A. 

(H. 0,210— L. 0,155) 
Lent by Charles L. Freer, Esq. 

(255). Portrait of Fantin-Latour (Crayon Drawing) 1859 

Paris Catalogue: Page 67, No. 122B. 
Lent by Madame Fantin-Latour. 

(256). Portrait of Whistler (Black Crayon on Brown 
Paper) 
Paris Catalogue: Page 67, No. 123. 

(H. 0,170— L. 0,135) 
Lent by J. P. Heseltine, Esq. 

(257). Mrs. Leyland 

Paris Catalogue: Page 67, No. 123 bis. 

London Catalogue: Page 108, No. 84. 

(H. 10%— B. 6%) 
Lent by Monsieur J. E. Blanche. 

(258). Figure Reading (Drawing with Two Crayons on 
Brown Paper) 
Paris Catalogue: Page 68, No. 124. 

(H. 0,230— L. 0,170) 

Lent by Mrs. Charles Knowles. 



LIST OF PAINTINGS 197 

(259). Study of Nude (Drawing with Two Crayons) 
Paris Catalogue: Page 68, No. 125. 

(H. 0,230— L. 0,173) 
Lent by Mrs. Charles Knowles. 

(260). Draped Model (Black Crayon and Pastel on Brown 
Paper) 
Paris Catalogue: Page 68, No. 128." 

(H. 0,250— L. 0,170) 
Lent by J. P. Heseltine, Esq. 

(261). Black and Red. The Egyptian 

Paris Catalogue: Page 69, No. 129. 

(H. 0,287— L. 0,190) 
(262). Study of Nude (Black Crayon and Pastel) 
Paris Catalogue: Page 69, No. 130. 

(H. 0,250— L. 0,170) 
Lent by Mrs. Charles Knowles. 

(263). Venus Astarte 

Paris Catalogue: Page 70, No. 132. 

(H. 0,268— L. 0,168, inside the frame) 
Lent by Charles L. Freer, Esq. 

(264). Venus 

Paris Catalogue: Page 70, No. 133. 

(H. 0,283— L. 0,182) 
(265). Youth 

Paris Catalogue: Page 70, No. 134. 

(266). Draped Model 

Paris Catalogue: Page 70, No. 135. 

(H. 0,230— L. 0,150) 
Lent by J. P. Heseltine, Esq. 

(267). The Purple Iris 

Paris Catalogue: Page 71, No. 137. 

(H. 0,275— L. 0,120, inside the frame) 
Lent by Charles L. Freer, Esq. 



198 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

(268.) "Le Ruban" 

Paris Catalogue: Page 71, No. 139. 

(H. 0,280— L. 0,185) 
(269). Bleu et Violet. La Jacinthe 

Paris Catalogue: Page 72, No. 141. 

(H. 0,267— L. 0,191) 
(270). The Tambourine 

Paris Catalogue: Page 72, No. 142. 

(H. 0,283— L. 0,200) 
(271). The Baby's Promenade 

Paris Catalogue: Page 72, No. 143. 

(H. 0,285— L. 0,190) 
(272). Mother and Child 

Paris Catalogue: Page 74, No. 147. 

(H. 0,280— L. 0,190) 
Lent by Madame Potter-Palmer. 

(273). The Shell 

Paris Catalogue: Page 74, No. 148. 

(H. 0,192— L. 0,287) 
Lent by Charles L. Freer, Esq. 

(274). Bead Stringing 

Paris Catalogue: Page 74, No. 149. 

(H. 0,284— L. 0,190) 
(275). The Conversation 

Paris Catalogue: Page 75, No. 150. 

(H. 0,192— L. 0,280) 
(276). Violet and Gold 

Paris Catalogue: Page 75, No. 151. 

(H. 0,190— L. 0,182) 
(277). Long Venice 

Paris Catalogue: Page 75, No. 152. 

(H. 0,108— L. 0,270, inside the frame) 
Lent by R. A. Canfield, Esq. 




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LIST OF PAINTINGS 199 

(278). The Grand Canal. Venise 

Paris Catalogue: Page 75, No. 153. 

(H. 0,258— L. 0,158, inside the frame) 
Lent by Charles L. Freer, Esq. 

(279). Nocturne. Venise 

Paris Catalogue: Page 76, No. 154. 

(H. 0,190— L. 0,270, inside the frame) 
Lent by R. A. Canfield, Esq. 

(280). The Cemetery. Venice 

Paris Catalogue: Page 76, No. 155. 

(H. 0,155— L. 0,270) 
Lent by R. A. Canfield, Esq. 

(281). Un Canal. Venise 

Paris Catalogue: Page 76, No. 156. 

(H. 0,290— L. 0,132) 
Lent by R. A. Canfield, Esq. 

(282). The Ferry. Venice 

Paris Catalogue: Page 76, No. 157. 

(H. 0,277— L. 0,128, inside the frame) 
Lent by R. A. Canfield, Esq. 

(283). Venise 

Paris Catalogue: Page 77, No. 158. 
Lent by A. A. Hannay, Esq. ( H - 0,300— L. 0,155) 

(284). Calle. Venise (Pastel) 

Paris Catalogue: Page 77, No. 159. 

London Catalogue: Page 100, No. 60. 
Lent by J. P. Heseltine, Esq. (H. 10%— B. 7) 

(285). A Street in Venice 

Paris Catalogue: Page 77, No. 160. 

(H. 0,285— L. 0,110, inside the frame) 
Lent by Charles L. Freer, Esq. 



200 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

(286). A Street. Venice 

Paris Catalogue: Page 77, No. 161. 

(H. 0,255— L. 0,090, inside the frame) 
Lent by R. A. Canfield, Esq. 

(287). La Barca. Venise 

Paris Catalogue: Page 78, No. 162. 

(H. 0,200— L. 0,265) 
(288). Base of a Tower. Venice 

Paris Catalogue: Page 78, No. 164. 

(H. 0,290— L. 0,160) 
Lent by J. P. Heseltine, Esq. 

(289). The Doorway. Venice 

Paris Catalogue: Page 79, No. 166. 

(H. 0,275— L. 0,190, inside the frame) 
Lent by R. A. Canfield, Esq. 

(290). Doorway 

Parts Catalogue: Page 79, No. 167. 

(H. 0,273— L. 0,170, inside the frame) 
Lent by Charles L. Freer, Esq. 

(291). Modele Nu, debout, passant une robe 
Paris Catalogue: Page 79, No. 168. 

(H. 0,270— L. 0,198) 

(292). Modele drape, couche, tenant un enfant dans ses bras 
Paris Catalogue: Page 80, No. 169. 

(H. 0,200— L. 0,170) 

(293). Figure drapee, couchee. Un enfant nu est couche 
devant elle 
Paris Catalogue: Page 80, No. 170. 

(H. 0,200— L. 0,270) 

(294). Modele drape, debout devant une balustrade 
Paris Catalogue: Page 80, No. 171. 

(H. 0,270— L. 0,700) 



LIST OF PAINTINGS 201 

(295.) Tete d'homme barbu (Pencil Sketch) 
Paris Catalogue: Page 80, No. 172. 

(H. 0,070— L. 0,065) 

(296). Tete d'homme barbu (Pencil Sketch) 
Paris Catalogue: Page 80, No. 173. 

(H. 0,105— L. 0,075) 
(297). Croquis 

Paris Catalogue: Page 80, No. 174. 

(H. 0,800— L. 0,075) 
(298). Croquis (Pencil) 

Paris Catalogue: Page 81, No. 175. 

(H. 0,140— L. 0,090) 
(299). Tete de petite fille (Pencil) 

Paris Catalogue: Page 81, No. 176. 

(H. 0,098— L. 0,058) 
(300). Tete d'enfant (Pencil) 

Paris Catalogue: Page 81, No. 177. 

(H. 0,060— L. 0,050) 

(301). Une rue le soir (Pen and Wash) 

Paris Catalogue: Page 81, No. 178. 

(H. 0,080— L. 0,090) 
(302). Old Houses, Canterbury 

Paris Catalogue: Page 81, No. 179. 

(H. 0,130— L. 0,090) 
(303). Doorway: Ajaccio (Sepia) 

Paris Catalogue: Page 82, No. 181. 

(H. 0,140— L. 0, 080) 

(304). Interior: Ajaccio (Water-Colour and Sepia) 
Paris Catalogue: Page 82, No. 182. 

(H. 0,140— L. 0,080) 
(305). La Mule (Sepia) 

Paris Catalogue: Page 82, No. 183. 

(H. 0,137— L. 0,080) 



202 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

(306). Children: Ajaccio (Pencil Sketch) 
Paris Catalogue: Page 83, No. 185. 

(H. 0,140— L. 0,080) 
(306a). Street: Ajaccio (Pencil) 

Paris Catalogue: Page 83, No. 187. 

(H. 0,137— L. 0,078) 

(307). Japanese Figure: Seated (Black and White Chalk 
on Brown Paper) 
London Catalogue: Page 42, No. 389. 

(H. 10%— B. 6%) 
Lent by the Executors of the late J. Staats Forbes, Esq. 

(308). Female Figure with Fan (Black and White Chalk 
on Brown Paper) 
London Catalogue-' Page 43, No. 390. 

(H. 73/ 4 _B. 4%) 
Lent by the Executors of the late J. Staats Forbes, Esq. 

(309). Female Figure, Back (Black and White Chalk on 
Brown Paper) 
London Catalogue: Page 43, No. 391. 

(H. 11— B. 63/4) 
Lent by the Executors of the late J. Staats Forbes, Esq. 

(310). Female Figure with Fan (Black and White Chalk 
on Brown Paper) 
London Catalogue: Page 43, No. 392. 

(H. 8— B. 5) 
Lent by the Executors of the late J. Staats Forbes, Esq. 

(311). Female Figure, Front (Black and White Chalk on 
Brown Paper) 
London Catalogue: Page 44, No. 393. 

(H. 10%— B. 63/4) 
Lent by the Executors of the late J. Staats Forbes, Esq. 



LIST OF PAINTINGS 203 

(312). A Nude (Black and White Chalk on Brown Paper) 
London Catalogue: Page 44, No. 394. 

(H. ioy 2 — B. 7%) 

Lent by the Executors of the late J. Staats Forbes, Esq. 

(313), Female Figure, Hand on Rail (Black and White 
Chalk on Brown Paper) 
London Catalogue: Page 44, No. 395. 

(H. 14%— B. 6%) 
Lent by the Executors of the late J. Staats Forbes, Esq. 

(314). Female Figure, Looking Over Her Shoulder (Black 
and White Chalk on Brown Paper) 
London Catalogue: Page 44, No. 396. 

(H. 8— B. 5) 
Lent by the Executors of the late J. Staats Forbes, Esq. 

(315). Female Figure in Flounced Dress (Black and White 
Chalk on Brown Paper) 
London Catalogue: Page 45, No. 397. 

(H. 12%— B. 634) 
Lent by the Executors of the late J. Staats Forbes, Esq. 

(316). Lady with Fan (Black and White Chalk on Brown 
Paper) 
London Catalogue: Page 45, No. 398. 

(H. 73,4— B. 5) 
Lent by the Executors of the late J. Staats Forbes, Esq. 

(317). Three Figures, Pink and Grey (Oil) 
London Catalogue: Page 45, No. 399. 

(H. 55i/ 2 — B. 72) 
Lent by Alfred Chapman, Esq. 

(318). School House on Fire (Water-Colour) 
London Catalogue: Page 61, No. 154. 

(H. 5-B. 7%) 
Lent by Mrs. W. McNeill Whistler. 



204 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

(319). Sam Weller's Lodging in the Fleet Prison (Water- 
Colour) 
London Catalogue: Page 61, No. 155. 

(H. 4%-B. 5%) 
Lent by Mrs. W. McNeill Whistler. 

(320). Illustrations to Sir Henry Thompson's Catalogue of 
His Collection of Blue and White Nankin Porce- 
lain, 1878 (Indian Ink) 
London Catalogue: Page 61, Nos. 156, 157, 158, 159, 
160, 161. 

Lent by Pickford R. Waller, Esq. 

(321). Design for Matting (Black and Coloured Chalk on 
Brown Paper) 
London Catalogue: Page 62, No. 162. 

(H. 105/ 8 — B. 6%) 
Lent by Mrs. Knowles. 

(322). Studies of Nudes (Black and White Chalk) 

Three complete figures and notes of heads, torso, 
etc. 
London Catalogue: Page 62, No. 163. 

(H. 11%— B. 7%) 
Lent by Laurence W. Hodson, Esq. 

(323). A Study (Black and White Chalk on Brown Paper) 
London Catalogue: Page 62, No. 164. 

(H. 9— B. 6%) 
Lent by Mrs. Knowles. 

(324). A Female Figure (Black and White Chalk on 
Brown Paper) 
London Catalogue: Page 63, No. 165. 

(H. 8%-b. ey 4 ) 

Lent by Sir James Knowles. 



LIST OF PAINTINGS 205 

(325). Full-Length Nude (Pastel and Black Chalk on 
Brown Paper) 
London Catalogue: Page 63, No. 166. 

(H. 13— B. 7) 
Lent by Sir James Knowles. 

(326). Mother and Child (Black and White Chalk on 
Brown Paper) 
London Catalogue: Page 63, No. 167. 

(H. 7— B. 8%) 
Lent by Sir James Knowles. 

(327). Study of a Nude (Black and White Chalk on Brown 
Paper) 
London Catalogue: Page 64, No. 168. 

(H. 10— B. 5%) 
Lent by Sir James Knowles. 

(328). Water Colour on Tinted Paper 

London Catalogue: Page 64, No. 169. 

(H. 7%-B. 6) 
Lent by Sir James Knowles. 

(329). A Nude Figure (Pastel and Black and White Chalk 
on Brown Paper) 
London Catalogue: Page 64, No. 170. 

(H. 10%— B. 7%) 
Lent by Sir James Knowles. 

(330). Study for Dress (Pastel) 

London Catalogue: Page 64, No. 171. 

(H. 93/ 4 _B. 8%) 
Lent by W. C. Alexander, Esq. 

(331). Maude Standing (Black Chalk on Brown Paper) 
London Catalogue: Page 65, No. 172. 

(H. 1014— B. 6%) 
Lent by Thomas Way, Esq. 



206 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

(332). Drawing from the Nude, No. 1 (Chalk and Pastel 
on Brown Paper) 
London Catalogue: Page 65, No. 173. 

(H. 9%— B. 6) 
Lent by Edmund Davis, Esq. 

(333). Figure (Pastel on Brown Paper) 

London Catalogue: Page 65, No. 174. 

(H. 10— B. 6) 
Lent by Madame Blanche Marchesi. 

(334). Harmony in Gold and Brown (Pastel on Brown 
Paper) 
London Catalogue: Page 65, No. 175. 

(H. 534— B. 10) 
Lent by Pickford R. Waller, Esq. 

(335). Souvenir of Velasquez (Black and White Chalk on 
Brown Paper) 
London Catalogue^ Page 66 , No. 176. 

(H. 6%-B. 5%) 
Lent by H. Graves, Esq. 

(336). Girl with Parasol (Pen and Ink) 

London Catalogue: Page 66 , No. 177. 

(H. 6i/ 4 -B. 33/ 4 ) 
Lent by G. R. Halkett, Esq. 

(337). Lady with a Fan (Pencil Drawing, touched with 
White) 
London Catalogue: Page 66 y No. 178. 

(H. 7%-B. 4%) 
Lent by C. L. Rothenstein, Esq. 

(338). Studies in Lead Pencil for Butterflies Used in the 
Artist's Publications 

London Catalogue: Page 66, No, 179 and No. 180. 
Lent by H. J. Pollitt, Esq. 



LIST OF PAINTINGS 207 

(339). Portrait of Whistler (Pen and Ink Drawing) 

Study for the full length portrait, exhibited in the 
International Exhibition in Paris in 1900. 
London Catalogue: Page 66, No. 181. 

(H. 4-B. 3%) 
Lent by Joseph Pennell, Esq. 

(340). Pen Sketch for the Portrait of Sarasate 

London Catalogue: Page 67, No. 182. 

(H. 5i/ 4 -B. 2%) 
Lent by Charles Morley, Esq. 

(341). A Sleeping Figure (Black Chalk) 
1860 Costume. 
Signed "Whistler." 
London Catalogue: Page 67, No. 183. 

(H. 9— B. 6%) 
Lent by B. B. MacGeorge, Esq. 

(342). A Sleeping Figure (Black Chalk) 

1860 Costume. 
Signed "Whistler." 
London Catalogue: Page 67, No. 184. 

( 9 i/ 4 --734) 

(343). Study for the Portrait of Carlyle (Pen, Ink and 
Wash) 
London Catalogue: Page 67, No. 185. 

(H. 4— B. 334) 
Lent by T. Way, Esq. 

(344). Figure Reading (Black and White Chalk on Brown 

Paper) 
London Catalogue: Page 67, No. 186. 

(H. 8%— B. 6%) 
Lent by Mrs. Knowles. 



208 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

(345). Figure of a Child (Black and White Chalk on Brown 
Paper) 
London Catalogue: Page 68, No. 187. 

(H. 9— B. 7) 
Lent by Mrs. Knowles. 

(346). Draped Figure (Black and White Chalk on Brown 
Paper) 
London Catalogue: Page 68, No. 188. 

(H. 103/ 8 _B. 6%) 
Lent by Mrs. Knowles. 

(347). Study of a Nude (Black and White Chalk on Brown 
Paper) 
London Catalogue: Page 68, No. 189. 

(H. 9%-B. 6%) 
Lent by Mrs. Knowles. 

(348). Nelly (Pencil Drawing on Blue Paper) 
1860 Dress. 
London Catalogue: Page 68, No. 191. 

(H. 8— B. 6%) 
Lent by Laurence W. Hodson, Esq. 

(349). Illustration to "The First Sermon" (Proof of Wood 

Engraving) 

"Good Words/' 1862, engraved by Dalziel Bros. 
London Catalogue: Page 69, No. 192. 

(H. 6— B. 4%) 
Lent by Harold Hartley, Esq. 

(350). Illustration to "The First Sermon" (Proof of Wood 
Engraving) 

"Good Words," 1862, engraved by Dalziel Bros. 
London Catalogue: Page 69, No. 193. 

(H. 6— B. 4%) 
Lent by Harold Hartley, Esq. 



LIST OF PAINTINGS 209 

(351). The Morning Before the Massacre of St. Bartholo- 
mew (Proof of Wood Engraving) 
"Once a Week," Vol. VII, p. 210. Engraved by 
Dalziel. 
London Catalogue: Page 69, No. 194. 

(H. 6— B. 4) 
Lent by Messrs. Chatto and Windus. 

(352). Count Burkhardt (Proof of Wood Engraving) 

"Once a Week," Vol. VII, p. 378. Engraved by 
Swain. 
London Catalogue: Page 69, No. 195. 

(H. 614— B. 4) 
Lent by Messrs. Chatto and Windus. 

(353). The Major's Daughter. (Proof of Wood Engraving) 
Signed "Whistler." 
"Once a Week," Vol. VI, p. 712. 
London Catalogue: Page 70, No. 196. 

(H. 5-B. 41/4) 
Lent by Messrs. Chatto and Windus. 

(354). The Relief Fund in Lancashire. (Proof of Wood 
Engraving) 

"Once a Week," Vol. VI, p. 712. 
London Catalogue: Page 70, No. 197. 

(H. 5i/ 2 — B. 4) 
Lent by Messrs. Chatto and Windus. 

(355). A Portrait (Pencil Drawing on Wood Block, Un- 

engraved) 
London Catalogue: Page 70, No. 198. 

(H. 2i/ 2 — B. 2i/ 2 ) 
Lent by Joseph Pennell, Esq. 



210 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

(356). Study of a Head, Slight (Pencil Drawing on Wood, 
Unengraved) 
London Catalogue: Page 70, No. 199. 

(H. 2%-B. 13/ 4 ) 
Lent by Joseph Pennell, Esq. 

(357). Study of a Head, No. 2, Slight (Pencil Drawing on 
Wood Unengraved) 
London Catalogue: Page 70, No. 200. 

(H. 4%-B. 2%) 
Lent by Joseph Pennell, Esq. 

(358). An Illustration on Wood; a Little Figure Under the 
Sea Gazing at a Fish 

London Catalogue: Page 70, No. 201. 

(H. 2%-B. 1%) 
Lent by Joseph Pennell, Esq. 

(359). Study of a Girl in Bed, Covered by an Elaborate 
Quilt on Which Sits a Monkey 
London Catalogue: Page 71, No. 202. 

(H. 2%-B. 4%) 
Lent by Joseph Pennell, Esq. 

(360). Portrait of the Artist (Black and White Chalk 
Drawing) 
London Catalogue: Page 71, No. 203. 

(H. 10— B. 6%) 
Lent by Thomas Way, Esq. 

(361). A Study (Black and White Chalk on Brown Paper) 

London Catalogue: Page 71, No. 204. 
Lent by Mrs. Knowles. ( H * 71 /s— B. 4%) 

(363). Study of Nude Figure (Pen Drawing) 
London Catalogue: Page 71, No. 205. 

(H. 4%— B. 2) 
Lent by William Heinemann, Esq. 



LIST OF PAINTINGS 211 

(363). Old Battersea Bridge (Black and White Chalk 
Drawing on Brown Paper) 
London Catalogue: Page 71, No. 206. 

Lent by H. J. Pollitt, Esq. ( H - 6 %— B - 101 / 2 ) 

(364). A Frame of Ten Early Pencil Sketches Which Were 
Given to His Niece, Mrs. Thynne, by Whistler, 
After She Had Posed for Him as a Child 

London Catalogue: Page 72, No. 207. 
Lent by Mrs. Charles Thynne. 

(365). The Widow (Oil) 

London Catalogue: Page 75, No. 1. 

(PL 22— B. 17)' 
Lent by the Executors of the late J. Staats Forbes, Esq. 

(366). Nocturne, Blue and Gold, St. Mark's (Oil) 
London Catalogue: Page 75, No. 2. 

(H. 17y 2 — B. 23%) 
Lent by John J. Cowan, Esq. 

(367). Sea and Rain (Oil) 

Signed "Whistler, '65." 
London Catalogue: Page 75, No. 3. 

(H. 19%— B. 28%) 
Lent by Alexander Young, Esq. 

(368). Girl with a Red Feather (Oil) 

London Catalogue: Page 75, No. 4. 

(H. 19— B. 11) 
Lent by the Executors of the late J. Staats Forbes, Esq. 

(369). Arrangement in Grey and Black, Thomas Carlyle 
(Oil) 
London Catalogue: Page 76, No. 5. 

(H. 67— B. 56)] 
Lent by the Glasgow Corporation. 



212 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

(370). Girl in Black (Oil) 

London Catalogue: Page 76, No. 6. 
Lent by Monsieur X. (H. 19— B. 11) 

(371). Symphony in White, No. 3 (Oil) 
i Signed: "Symphony in White, No. 3, Whistler, 

j 1867." 

London Catalogue: Page 77, No. 7. 

Lent by Edmund Davis, Esq. (H. 19%— B. 29) 

(372). The Little Blue Bonnet, Blue and Coral (Oil) 

London Catalogue: Page 77, No. 8. 

(Oval, H. 22i/ 2 — B. 17— sight measurement) 
(H. 231/2— B. 18%, without the frame) 
Lent by William Heinemann, Esq. 

(Sold to Mr. William Macbeth, August 31, 1906.) 

(373). Portrait of Monsieur Theodore Duret, Writer on 
Art (Oil) 
London Catalogue: Page 78, No. 10. 
Lent by Monsieur Theodore Duret. (H. 72— B. 32%) 

(374). Nocturne, Blue and Gold, Old Battersea Bridge 

(Oil) 
London Catalogue: Page 79, No. 12. 
Lent by Robert H. C. Harrison, Esq. (H. 26— B. 19%) 

(375.) Whistler in His Studio (Oil) 

London Catalogue: Page 79, No. 13. 
Lent by Douglas Freshfield, Esq. (H. 23— B. 17%) 

(376). The Artist's Studio (Oil) 

Another version of No. 375. 
London Catalogue: Page 80, No. 15. 
Lent by the City of Dublin Gallery. (H. 23%— B. 18) 



LIST OF PAINTINGS 213 

(377). Blue and Gold, Valparaiso, .Nocturne (Oil) 
London Catalogue: Page 80, No. 16. 

(H. 29y 2 — B. 19%) 
Lent by George McCulloch, Esq. 

Mr. McCulloch writes, July, 1906, that he still owns this 
picture. 

(378). Brown and Silver, Old Battersea Bridge (Oil) 

London Catalogue: Page 81, No. 17. 

(H. 24i/ 2 — B. 29%) 
Lent by Edmund Davis, Esq. 

(379). Brown and Gold, Lillie in Our Alley (Oil) 
London Catalogue: Page 81, No. 18. 

(H. 20— B. ny 2 ) 
Lent by John J. Cowan, Esq. 

(380). Lilian, Daughter of E. G. Woakes, Esq., M.D. (Oil) 
London Catalogue: Page 82, No. 20. 

(H. 20— 13i/ 2 ) 
Lent by E. G. Woakes, Esq., M.D. 

(381). Cremorne, No. 1 (Oil) 

London Catalogue: Page 82, No. 21. 

(H. 19i/ 2 — B. 30) 
Lent by Mrs. Alexander Argenti. 

(382). Study in Brown (Oil) 

London Catalogue: Page 83, No. 22. 

(H. 20— B. 12) 

Lent by Baroness de Meyer. 

(383). Cremorne Gardens, No. 2 (Oil) 

London Catalogue: Page 84, No. 25. 

(H. 25— B. 51) 
Lent by T. R. Way, Esq. 



214 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

(384). Arrangement in Black, No. 3, Portrait of Sir Henry 
Irving as Philip II. of Spain (Oil) 
Owned by Mr. Thomas, of Philadelphia, Pa. 
London Catalogue: Page 85, No. 27. 

(H. 81— B. 41) 
Lent by Sir Henry Irving. 

(385). The Girl in Red (Oil) 

London Catalogue: Page 85, No. 28. 

(H. 1934— B. 12) 
Lent by the Executors of the late J. Staats Forbes, Esq. 

(386). Portrait of the Artist (Oil) 

London Catalogue: Page 86, No. 30. 

(H. 29%— B. 21) 
Lent by George McCulloch, Esq. 

Mr. McCulloch writes, July, 1906, that he still owns the 
picture. 

(387). Nocturne, Blue and Green (Oil) 

London Catalogue: Page 86, No. 31. 

(H. 18%— B. 23%) 
Lent by W. C. Alexander, Esq. 

Mr. Alexander writes that the date of this Nocturne is 1874 
or 1875. 

(388). Trafalgar Square, Chelsea (Oil) 

London Catalogue: Page 88, No. 33. 
Lent by J. W. Martin White, Esq. (H. 18— B. 2 I ) 

Mr. White writes that this picture was bought by him "thr^e 
or four years ago" from Agnews, and formerly belonged to 
Albert Moore. 

(389). The Violinist 

London Catalogue: Page 88, No. 34. 

(H. 30— B. 19%) 
Lent by Monsieur Z. 



LIST OF PAINTINGS 215 

(390). Nocturne, Blue and Gold (Oil) 

London Catalogue: Page 89, No. 36. 
Lent by the Hon. Percy Wyndham. (H. 18— B. 24) 

The Honorable Percy Wyndham writes concerning this pic- 
ture that it was painted in 1871 or 1872, that it was bought in 
1872 or 1874, and that it was wrongly listed in the London 
Catalogue as "Nocturne, Blue and Silver." 

(391). Arrangement in Grey and Gold, Nocturne, Battersea 
Bridge (Oil) 
London Catalogue: Page 90, No. 38. 
Lent by Mrs. Flower. (H. 18— B. 23%) 

(392). Pink and Rose: The Mother's Sleep (Water- 
Colour) 
London Catalogue: Page 93, No. 39. 
Lent by John J. Cowan, Esq. (H. 7— B. 10%) 

(393). Design for a Mosaic (Pastel) 

London Catalogue: Page 93, No. 40. 
Lent by W. Graham Robertson, Esq. (H. 10%— B. 6%) 

(394). Nude Figure and Cupid (Water-Colour) 

London Catalogue: Page 93, No. 41. 
Lent by Madame la Comtesse de Beam. (H. 10 — B. 7) 

(395). Sea (Water-Colour) 

London Catalogue: Page 94, No. 43. 
Lent by Mrs. A. M. Jarvis. (H. 4,%—B. 8%) 

(396). Rose et Vert; L'Iris: Portrait of Miss Kinsella (Oil) 

London Catalogue: Page 94, No. 44. 
Lent by Miss Kinsella. (H. 74— B. 34) 



216 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

(397). The Salute, Venice, from the Riva Schiavoni 

(Water-Colour) 
London Catalogue: Page 95, No. 45. 

(H. 51/4-B. 8%) 
Lent by B. B. MacGeorge, Esq. 

(398). Venice (Pastel) 

London Catalogue: Page 95, No. 46. 

(H. 63,4— B. 11) 
Lent by Madame Blanche Marchesi. 

(399). Study of Mrs. Leyland (Pastel on Brown Paper) 
London Catalogue: Page 95, No. 47. 

(H. 10— B. 6I/2) 
Lent by Thomas Way, Esq. 

(400). The Convalescent (Water-Colour) 

London Catalogue: Page 96, No. 48. 

(H. 9i/ 2 -B. 6%) 
Lent by Dr. John W. Maclntyre. 

(401). Sea Beach and Figures (Pastel) 

London Catalogue: Page 96, No. 49. 

(H. 5i/ 2 — B. 10y 2 ) 
Lent by Sir William Eden, Bart. 

(402). Nocturne, Cremorne Gardens, No. 3 (Oil) 
London Catalogue: Page 96, No. 50. 

(H. 17— B. 24) 

Lent by C. Conder, Esq. 

(403). Arrangement in Grey, Portrait of Master Stephen 
Manuel (Oil) 
London Catalogue: Page 97, No. 51. 

(H. 19i/ 4 — B. 14%) 
Lent by Mrs. Manuel. 



LIST OF PAINTINGS 217 

(404). Bead Stringers, Venice (Pastel) 

London Catalogue: Page 97, No. 52. 

(H. 10%— B. 4) 
Lent by Thomas Way, Esq. 

(405). Arrangement in Black, No. 2, Portrait of Mrs. Louis 
Huth (Oil) 
London Catalogue: Page 97, No. 53. 

(H. 75— B. 39) 
Lent by Louis Huth, Esq. 

(406). Marble Palace, Venice (Pastel) 

London Catalogue: Page 98, No. 54. 

(H. 11— B. 5%) 

Lent by Thomas Way, Esq. 

(407). A Harmony in Blue and Silver (Oil) 
London Catalogue: Page 98, No. 55. 

(H. 5— B. 8%) 
Lent by His Honour Judge Evans. 

(408). A Venetian Water Gate (Pastel on Brown Paper) 
London Catalogue: Page 98, No. 56. 

(H. 11-B. 7%) 

Lent by Lord Battersea. 

(409). Belle a jour, Blue and Violet (Oil) 
London Catalogue: Page 99, No. 57. 

(H. 6%— B. 4) 

Lent by Madame Blanche Marchesi. 

(410). Study of a Girl's Head and Shoulders (Oil) 

London Catalogue: Page 99, No. 58. 
Lent by Baroness de Meyer. (H. 6 — B. 3) 

(411). The Shop Window (Oil) 

London Catalogue: Page 99, No. 59. 
Lent by A. Arnold Hannay, Esq. (H. 43^—B. 8%) 



218 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

(412). A Venetian Courtyard (Pastel) 

London Catalogue: Page 100, No. 61. 
Lent by Lord Battersea. (H. 11%— B. 5%) 

(413). Nocturne in Green and Gold, The Falling Rocket 

(Oil) 
London Catalogue: Page 100, No. 62. 

(H. 25— B. 30, outside the frame) 
Lent by William Heinemann, Esq. 

Now owned by the Metropolitan Museum of Art. 
The only title on the back of the canvas is "Nocturne in 
Green and Gold" with the butterfly monogram below it at the 
right. The added title, "The Falling Rocket," which is given 
in the London Catalogue, is probably wrong as no rocket ap- 
pears in the picture. 

(414). Annabel Lee (Pastel) 

London Catalogue: Page 101, No. 63. 

(H. 12%— B. 6%) 
Lent by Thomas Way, Esq. 

(415). The Sea, Pourville (Oil) 

London Catalogue: Page 101, No. 64. 

(H. 4— B. 6%) 
Lent by A. Arnold Hannay, Esq. 

(416). Portrait of Mrs. Louis Jarvis (Oil) 

London Catalogue: Page 101, No. 65. 
Lent by Mrs. A. M. Jarvis. (H. 23i/ 2 — B. 16) 

(417). In the Channel (Water-Colour) 

London Catalogue: Page 101, No. 66. 
Lent by Mrs. Knowles. 

(418). Battersea (Water-Colour) 

London Catalogue: Page 102, No. 67. 

(H. 33/ 8 _B. 4%) 
Lent by Sir William Eden, Bart. 



LIST OF PAINTINGS 219 

(419). Grey and Silver, Chelsea Wharf (Oil) 
London Catalogue: Page 102, No. 69. 

(H. 23%— B. 17%) 
Lent by P. A. B. Widener, Esq. 

(420). Little Nude (Pastel) 

London Catalogue: Page 103, No. 70. 

(H. 10— B. 5) 
Lent by Thomas Way, Esq. 

(421). An Arrangement in Black (Oil) 

London Catalogue: Page 103, No. 71. 

(H. 91/4-B. 7) 
Lent by Alexander Henderson, Esq. 

(422), Dieppe (Oil) 

London Catalogue: Page 104, No. 72. 

(H. 4%— B. 8) 
Lent by Douglas Freshfield, Esq. 

(423). The Purple Cap (Pastel) 

London Catalogue: Page 104, No. 73. 

(H. 10%— B. 6%) 
Lent by Thomas Way, Esq. 

(424). Study for the Head of Miss Cicely H. Alexander 

(Oil) 
London Catalogue: Page 104, No. 74. 
Lent by Alexander Reid, Esq. (H. 10— B. 14%) 

(425). At the Piano (Oil) 

London Catalogue: Page 105, No. 75. 
Lent by Edmund Davis, Esq. (H. 26— B. 35%) 

(426). Portrait of a Baby (Oil) 

London Catalogue: Page 105, No. 76. 
Lent by Brandon Thomas, Esq. (H. 19%— B. 113,4) 



220 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

(427). Note in Red and Violet (Oil) 

London Catalogue: Page 105, No. 77. 

(H. 4%— B. 8) 
Lent by Miss Constance Halford. 

Miss Constance Halford writes that she thinks this picture 
was painted at St. Ives, in Cornwall. 

(428). The Base of the Tower, Venice (Pastel) 

London Catalogue: Page 106, No. 78. 
French Catalogue: Page 78, No. 164 ( ?). 

(H. 11%— B. 63/4) 
Lent by J. P. Heseltine. 

No doubt the same picture, although the measure- 
ments in the two catalogues differ slightly. 

(429). The Blue Girl (Pastel on Brown Paper) 
London Catalogue: Page 106, No. 79. 

(H. 10%— B. 6%) 
Lent by Madame Blanche Marchesi. 

(430). Variations in Violet and Green (Oil) 
London Catalogue: Page 107, No. 81. 

(H. 23i/ 2 — B. 18%) 
Lent by Sir Charles McLaren, Bart. 

(431). Draped Model (Black and White Chalk on Brown 
Paper) 
London Catalogue: Page 107, No. 82. 
Lent by Mrs. Knowles. (H. 103/ 8 — B. 6%) 

(432). The Beach (Water-Colour) 

London Catalogue: Page 108, No. 85. 
Lent by Mrs. Knowles. (H. 8%— B. 4%) 

(433). Landscape (Oil) 

London Catalogue: Page 108, No. 86. 
Lent by Alexander Young, Esq. (H. 11% — B. 24) 



LIST OF PAINTINGS 221 

(434). Study of Rosettes (Black and Coloured Chalk on 
Brown Paper) 
London Catalogue: Page 108, No. 87. 

H. 11— B. 7) 
Lent by Mrs. Knowles. 

(435). Portrait of L. A. Ionides, Esq. (Oil) 
London Catalogue: Page 109, No. 89. 

(H. 15%— B. 1^) 
Lent by L. A. Ionides, Esq. 

(436). Nocturne, Chelsea Rags (Oil) 

London Catalogue: Page 109, No. 90. 

(H. 14— B. 20) 
Lent by John J. Cowan, Esq. 

(437). On the Thames at Chelsea (Pastel) 
London Catalogue: Page 109, No. 91. 

(H. 10%— B. 6%) 
Lent by W. C. Alexander, Esq. 

Mr. Alexander writes that the date of this picture is 1874 
or 1875. 

(438). The Isles of Venice (Pastel) 

London Catalogue: Page 110, No. 92. 

(H. 2— B. 10%) 
Lent by W. Baptiste Scoones, Esq. 

(439). The General Dealer (Oil) 

London Catalogue: Page 110, No. 94. 

(H. 4%-B. 8%) 
Lent by John J. Cowan, Esq. 

(440). The Lily (Pastel) 

London Catalogue: Page 111, No. 95. 

(H. 13%— B. 9) 
Lent by W. Bernard Knobel, Esq. 



222 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

(441). Portrait Sketch of F. R. Leyland (Oil) 
London Catalogue: Page 111, No. 97. 

(H. 14— B. 83/4) 
Lent by Charles Conder, Esq. 

(442). Seated Figure (Pastel) 

London Catalogue: Page 112, No. 99. 

(H. n/ 2 — B. 5) 
Lent by Thomas Way, Esq. 

(443). Portrait of F. R. Leyland, Esq. (Oil) 
London Catalogue: Page 113, No. 100. 

(H. 72— B. 34) 
Lent by Mrs. Val Prinsep. 

(444). A Freshening Breeze (Oil) 

London Catalogue: Page 113, No. 101. 

(H. 8i/ 2 — B. 5) 
Lent by John G. Ure, Esq. 

(445). Rose and Red: The Barber's Shop at Lyme-Regis 
(Oil) 
London Catalogue: Page 113, No. 102. 

(H. 4i/ 2 — B. 8) 
Lent by Humphrey Roberts, Esq. 

Mr. Roberts writes, July, 1906 : "I have parted with the 
picture to Messrs. Wm. Marchant & Co., 5 Regent Street, 
London. 

(446). Portrait of Dr. William McNeill Whistler (Oil) 
London Catalogue: Page 114, No. 103. 

(H. 17— B. 14) 
Lent by Mrs. W. McNeill Whistler. 

(447). The Seashore (Oil) 

London Catalogue: Page 114, No. 104. 

(H. 33/ 8 _B. 5i/ 2 ) 
Lent by Sir William Eden, Bart. 



LIST OF PAINTINGS 223 

(448). A Canal, Venice (Water-Colour) 

London Catalogue: Page 114, No. 105. 
Lent by B. B. MacGeorge, Esq. (H. %%— B. 5%) 

(449). Brown and Gold, The Cure's Little Class (Oil) 

London Catalogue: Page 115, No. 106. 
Lent by John J. Cowan, Esq. (H. 4%— B. 8%) 

(450). Petite bonne a la porte d'une Auberge (Oil) 

London Catalogue: Page 115, No. 107. 
Lent by Mrs. H. S. Schwann. (H. 83/ 8 — B. 4%) 

(451). Portrait of Miss Yvonne Forster (Black and White 
Chalk on Brown Paper) 
London Catalogue: Page 115, No. 108. 
Lent by Miss A. E. Forster. (H. 8%— B. 5%) 

(452). Souvenir of the Gaiety (Pastel) 

London Catalogue: Page 116, No. 110. 
Lent by Sir William Eden, Bart. (H. 43/ 8 _ B. 6%) 

(453). Baby Leyland (Pastel on Brown Paper) 
London Catalogue: Page 116, No. 111. 
Lent by Thomas Way, Esq. (H. 10— B. 6%) 

(454). A Little Red Note, Dordrecht (Water-Colour) 

London Catalogue: Page 119, No. 112. 
Lent by W. Bryant, Esq. (H. 43,4— B. 8%) 

(455). Three Drawings in One Frame (Pastel on Grey 
Paper) 

a. Model leaning forward, full length, lightly 
draped, looking to right. (H. 9 — B. 6) 

b. Portrait of the Artist (Black Chalk on Brown 
Paper). (H. 6— B. 5%) 

c. Model with Flowers (Pastel and Chalk). 

(H. 9^4— B. 63^) 
London Catalogue: Page 119, No. 113. 
Lent by J. P. Heseltine, Esq. 



224 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

(456). A Grey Note (Body Colour) 

London Catalogue: Page 120, No. 114. 

(H. 6— B. 10%) 
Lent by Mrs. Knowles. 

(457). Study for Dress (Pastel) 

London Catalogue: Page 120, No. 115. 

(H. 9%-B. 5%) 
Lent by W. C. Alexander, Esq. 

Mr. Alexander writes that this was drawn in 1875. 

(458). Design for a Fan (Water-Colour) 

London Catalogue: Page 120, No. 116. 

(H. 6I/2— extreme B. 19%) 
Lent by C. H. Shannon, Esq. 

(459). Diana at the Pool (Oil) 

Copy of a picture in the Louvre by Boucher. 
London Catalogue: Page 120, No. 117. 

(H. 23— B. 27) 
Lent by Louis W. Winans, Esq. 

(460). Blue and Gold (Pastel) 

London Catalogue: Page 121, No. 118. 

(H. 11— B. 4%) 
Lent by Mrs. Knowles. 

(461). Venice (Pastel) 

London Catalogue: Page 121, No. 119. 

(H. 9%— B. 7) 
Lent by Laurence W. Hodson, Esq. 

(462). Maude Reading, in a Hammock (Water-Colour) 
London Catalogue: Page 121, No. 120. 

(H. 5%-B. 8%) 

Lent by G. H. Buek, Esq. 



LIST OF PAINTINGS 225 

(463). St. Ives, Cornwall (Water-Colour) 

London Catalogue: Page 122, No. 121. 
Lent by Thomas Way, Esq. (H. 6%—B. 4%) 

(464). Nocturne, Valparaiso, Silver and Gold (Water- 
Colour) 
London Catalogue: Page 122, No. 122. 
Lent by G. N. Stevens, Esq. (H. 834— B. 6%) 

(465). Study for the Peacock Room (Pencil Drawing) 

London Catalogue: Page 122, No. 123. 
Lent by A. Ludovici, Esq. (H. 63/ 8 — B. 6y 2 ) 

(466). Benedictine Monks, a Very Early Sketch (Pen and 
Pencil) 
London Catalogue: Page 122, No. 124. 
Lent by Mrs. W. McNeill Whistler. 

(467). Girl Reading (Pen Sketch) 

London Catalogue: Page 123, No. 126. 
Lent by William Heinemann, Esq. (H. 6— B. 4%) 

(468). Two Sketches in One Frame (Pen Drawing) 

Illustrations for "Thoughts at Sunrise," a song by 
Mrs. MoncriefL 

(a). The sun is rising over a great lake, sprays of 
blossom and waving grass to right. 

(H. 634— B. 4%) 

(&). The sun is rising over a great plain, a flight of 

birds from it toward the zenith. Blossoming boughs 

and waving grass to right. 

London Catalogue: Page 123, No. 127. 

Lent by Mrs. Moncrieff. (H. 63/4— B. 4%); 

(469). La Toilette (Pen Drawing on Blue Paper) 

London Catalogue: Page 124, No. 128. 
Lent by Madame Blanche Marchesi. (H. 63/4— B. 4%) 



226 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

(470). Selsea Bill (Water-Colour) 

London Catalogue: Page 124, No. 129. 
Lent by B. B. MacGeorge, Esq. (H. 8%— B. 12) 

(471). A Marine Sunset (Water-Colour) 

London Catalogue: Page 124, No. 130. 
Lent by Thomas Way, Esq. (H. 5— B. 6%) 

(472). Pencil Drawing of Baby 

London Catalogue: Page 125, No. 138. 
Lent by LI. J. W. Bebb, Esq. 

(473). Honfleur, Grey and Silver (Water-Colour) 

London Catalogue: Page 125, No. 139. 
Lent by Professor Emil Sauer. (H. 8— B. 4%)' 

(474). Crepuscule in Opal, Trouville (Oil) 

London Catalogue: Page 125, No. 140. 
Lent by Frederick Jameson, Esq. (H. 13 — B. 18) 

(475). La Note Rouge (Oil) 

London Catalogue: Page 126, No. 142. 

(H. 83/4— B. 1134) 
Lent by Sir George A. Drummond, K.C.B. 

(476). Drawing of Elderly Woman, with Inscription 
"James to Aunt Kate, 1844" 

{Whistler: Theodore Duret, page 1, reproduction.) 

(477). Sketch of Miss Grace Alexander 

{Whistler: Theodore Duret, page 34, mention; page 
111, illustration.) 

(478). Sketch for Portrait of Miss Alexander [Agnes 
Mary] Full Length 
{Whistler: Theodore Duret, page 37, reproduction.) 

(479). Sketch for Portrait of Miss Alexander [Agnes 
Mary] Half Length 
{Whistler: Theodore Duret, page 38, reproduction.) 



LIST OF PAINTINGS 227 

(480). Copy of the Andromeda by Ingres (Oil) 

(Exhibited at the Keppel Galleries in New York in 
1905.) 

(481). Harmony in Blue and Gold: 
The Peacock Room (Oil) 

(Exhibited at Messrs. Obach's Galleries, London, 
June, 1904.) 

(482). Portraits of Fanny, Florence and Elinor Ley land 

(in Oil, unfinished) 
(Whistler: Theodore Duret, page 48, mention.) 

(483). Portrait of Florence Leyland (Ink) 

(Whistler: Theodore Duret, page 53, reproduction.) 

(484). Harmony in Grey and Rose: Portrait of Lady Meux 

(Whistler: Theodore Duret, page 95, mention; page 
102, reproduction.) 

(485). Arrangement in Black and White: Portrait of Lady 
Meux 

(Exhibited at the Salon of 1882. In the Salon Cat- 
alogue it is wrongly listed as Portrait of M. Harry 
Men. Also reproduced in Duret's Whistler, facing 
page 152.) 

(486). Portrait of Lady Archibald Campbell (now called 
The Lady with the Yellow Buskin) 
(In the W. P. Wilstach Collection, Philadelphia, Pa.) 

(487). Sketch for Unexecuted or Destroyed Picture 

(Whistler: Theodore Duret, page 6, reproduction.) 

(488). Portrait of Lady Colin Campbell, Harmony in Ivory 
White (Oil) 
(Exhibited at the Society of British Artists in 1886.) 

(489). Portrait of Mrs. Walter Sickert, Arrangement in 
Violet and Rose (Oil) 
(Exhibited at the Society of British Artists in 1887.) 



228 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

(490). Miss Connie Gilchrist 

(Listed in Whistler: By H. W. Singer, No. 32.) 

(491). Purple and Gold: Phryne the Superb, Builder of 
Temples 

(Exhibited at the Albright Gallery, Buffalo, 1905.) 

(492). Die Lange Leizen, of the Six Marks 

(Exhibited at the Royal Academy, 1864.) 
Now in the John G. Johnson collection. 

(493). Wapping 

(Exhibited at the Royal Academy, 1864.) 

(494). Alone with the Tide (Oil) 

(Exhibited at the Royal Academy, 1862.) 

(495). Harmony in Amber and Black 

(Exhibited at the Grosvenor Gallery, 1877.) 

(496). Arrangement in Black and White, No. 1, L'Ameri- 
caine 

(Exhibited at the Grosvenor Gallery, 1878, and at 
the Comparative Exhibition of Native and Foreign 
Art, New York, 1904.) 

(497). Arrangement in Yellow and Gray 

(Amsterdam Museum.) 

(498). Portrait of Lady E., Brown and Gold 

(Exhibited at the Champs de Mars, 1894.) 

(499). Gold and Orange: The Neighbour 

(Exhibited at the International Society of Sculp- 
tors, Painters and Gravers, 1901.) 

(500). Arrangement in Flesh Colour and Red 

(Whistler: Theodore Duret, page 157, reproduction.) 

(501)\ Pen and Ink Sketch. Girl's Head in Profile 

(Whistler: Theodore Duret, page 167, reproduction.) 



LIST OF PAINTINGS 229 

(502). Study in India Ink, a Head 

(Whistler: Theodore Duret, page 198, reproduction.) 

(503). Sketch 

(Whistler: Theodore Duret, last page, reproduction.) 

(504). Symphony in Grey — Early Morning, Thames 

(Exhibited at the Comparative Exhibition of Na- 
tive and Foreign Art, New York, 1904.) 

(505). Southend, The Pleasure Yacht (Water-Colour) 

(The Art of J. McNeill Whistler: T. R. Way and 
G. R. Dennis, page 96.) 

(506). London Bridge (Water-Colour) 

(The Art of /. McNeill Whistler: T. R. Way and 
G. R. Dennis, page 96.) 

(507). The Ermine Coat (Pastel?) 

(Exhibited at the Goupil Gallery, 1904.) 

(508). Mrs. Leyland, Seated, Back (Pen and Ink) 

(Whistler: Theodore Duret, page 131, reproduction.) 

(509). Pen and Ink Sketch of Woman Standing 

(Whistler: Theodore Duret, page 147, reproduction.) 

(510). St. Paul's: (Pen and Ink.) "The feather end of the 
quill pen was used as a brush for the washes." 
(Whistler as I Knew Him: Mortimer Menpes. Fac- 
ing page 23.) 

(510a). The Lady in Grey (Body-Colour) 

A standing figure dressed in grey, against a very- 
dark grey background. A large hat in the right hand. 
Butterfly more than a third of the way up, on the 
right. 

(Owned by the Metropolitan Museum of Art.) 

(H. 10^— B. 4Ji.) 



230 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

(511) Lady Meux (Pen and Ink) 

(Whistler as I Knew Him: Mortimer Menpes. Fac- 
ing page 20.) 

(512). A Bye Canal, Venice (Pastel) 

(Whistler as I Knew Him: Mortimer Menpes. Fac- 
ing page 26.) 

(513). Dorothy Menpes (Oil) 

(Whistler as I Knew Him: Mortimer Menpes. Fac- 
ing page 44.) 

(514). Master Menpes (Oil) 

(Whistler as I Knew Him: Mortimer Menpes. Fac- 
ing page 88.) 

(515). A Study in Rose and Brown (Oil) 

(Whistler as I Knew Him: Mortimer Menpes. Fac- 
ing page 128.) 

(516). Pen and Ink Sketch for the Portrait of Lady Meux 
in Grey and Rose: (Signed Twice with the Butter- 
fly.) 

(In the possession of Howard Mansfield, Esq.) 

(517). Small Drawing of a Woman's Figure (Nude) 
(In the possession of the Baroness de Meyer.) 

(518). Small Sea-scape of the Dieppe Beach 

(In the possession of the Baroness de Meyer.) 

(519). Mother and Child: Pastel; Date, 1885 

(In the possession of William Burrell, Esq.) 

(520). Drawing in Ink or Sepia, 1851 or 1852 

A fiddler is playing while a number of men are 
dancing and others look on. 

(In the possession of Miss Mary Park.) 



LIST OF PAINTINGS 23 1 

(521). Drawing in Ink or Sepia, 1851 or 1852 

A man sitting with legs crossed on a beer keg. 
(In the possession of Miss Mary Park.) 

(522). Symphony in Blue (Oil) 

(In the possession of Mrs. John L. Gardner.) 

(523). Trouville (Oil) 

(In the possession of Mrs. John L. Gardner.) 

(524). Study of a Cat (Sketch) 

(In the possession of Howard Mansfield, Esq.) 

(525). "Price's Candle Works" — Battersea. Symphony in 
Blue (Pastel) 
A view of the Thames at Battersea. The horizon 
line is an intense blue with pale yellow lights and re- 
flections in the water. Butterfly monogram in lower 
right corner. Some lines of purple at the left of the 
butterfly. (H. 4-f 6 — B. 131/4.) 

(In the possession of William Macbeth, Esq.) 

(526). Portrait of R. A. Canfield, Esq. (Oil) 

(In the possession of R. A. Canfield, Esq.) 

(527). Portrait of the Artist International Exhibition 1900 

(528.) La Napolitaine— Rose and Or (Oil) 

A half length full-face view of dark-haired, dark- 
eyed woman in a rose-coloured dress with dark trim- 
mings at the neck. The dress is cut away from the 
throat in a V shaped opening showing a single row of 
coral beads. The eyes are turned a little to the spec- 
tator's left. The hands do not show. Dark golden 
brown background. * Never exhibited. 

H. 191/4 B. 11% (inside the frame.) 

Owned by R. A. Canfield, Esq. 



A LIST OF 

WHISTLER'S LITHOGRAPHS 



A LIST OF 

Whistler's Lithographs 

Compiled from the Catalogues of the Memorial Exhibitions at Boston, 
London and Paris in 1904 and 1905. 



The letter W preceding the number at the right refers 
to the catalogue by Thomas R. Way, Second Edition, 1905, 
George Bell and Sons, London; H. Wunderlich and Com- 
pany, New York. In the catalogues of the Memorial Exhi- 
bitions the titles of the lithographs are frequently different 
from those used by Mr. Way, a fact that makes for more or 
less confusion. In the subjoined list an attempt has been 
made to identify the subjects of the Memorial Catalogues 
with those of Mr. Way's Catalogue and supply the correct 
Way number where it does not already appear, 

(1). Study, Figure of a Lady W 1 

London Catalogue: Page 49, No. 1. 

(2). Study, Female Figure W 2 

London Catalogue: Page 49, No. 2. 

(3). Study, Female Figure W 3 

London Catalogue: Page 49, No. 3. 

(4). Limehouse W 4 

Boston Catalogue: Page 24, No. 1. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 87, No. 188. 
London Catalogue: Page 49, No. 4. 



236 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

(5). Nocturne W 5 

Boston Catalogue: Page 24, No. 2. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 87, No. 189. 
London Catalogue: Page 49, No. 5. 

(6). The Toilet W 6 

Boston Catalogue: Page 24, No. 3. 
London Catalogue: Page 49, No. 6. 

(7). Early Morning W 7 

Boston Catalogue: Page 24, No. 4. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 87, No. 190. 
London Catalogue: Page 49, No. 7. 

(8). The Broad Bridge W 8 

London Catalogue: Page 49, No. 8. 

(9). The Tall Bridge W 9 

Boston Catalogue: Page 24, No. 6. 
London Catalogue: Page 49, No. 9. 

(10). Gaiety Stage Door W 10 

Paris Catalogue: Page 87, No. 191. 
London Catalogue: Page 49, No. 10. 

(11). Victoria Club W 11 

Paris Catalogue: Page 87, No. 192. 
London Catalogue: Page 49, No. 11. 

(12). Old Battersea Bridge W 12 

Boston Catalogue: Page 24, No. 7. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 87, No. 193. 
London Catalogue: Page 49, No. 12. 

(13). Reading W 13 

Boston Catalogue: Page 24, No. 8. 
London Catalogue: Page 49, No. 13. 



WHISTLER'S LITHOGRAPHS 237 

(13a). Sketches (Drawn on Stone Later Cleaned) W 13a 
Boston Catalogue: Page 24, No. 9. 
London Catalogue: Page 49, No. 13a. 

(14). The Fan W 14 

London Catalogue: Page 49, No. 14. 

(15). Study, Classical Figure, Lightly Draped W 15 

London Catalogue: Page 49, No. 15. 

(16). Entrance Gate, St. Bartholomew's W 16 

Paris Catalogue: Page 87, No. 194. 
London Catalogue: Page 49, No. 16. 

(17). Churchyard W 17 

Boston Catalogue: Page 24, No. 10. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 87, No. 195. 
London Catalogue: Page 49, No. 17. 

(18). Little Court, Cloth Fair W 18 

Paris Catalogue: Page 87, No. 196. 
London Catalogue: Page 50, No. 18. 

(19). Lindsay Row, Chelsea W 19 

Paris Catalogue: Page 87, No. 197. 
London Catalogue: Page 50, No. 19. 

(20). Chelsea Shops W 20 

Paris Catalogue: Page 87, No. 198. 
London Catalogue' Page 50, No. 20. 

(21). Drury Lane Rags W 21 

Paris Catalogue: Page 88, No. 199. 
London Catalogue: Page 50, No. 21. 

(22). Chelsea Rags W 22 

Boston Catalogue: Page 25, No. 11. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 88, No. 200. 
London Catalogue: Page 50, No. 22. 



238 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

(23). Courtyard, Chelsea Hospital W 23 

Boston Catalogue: Page 25, No. 12. 
London Catalogue: Page 50, No. 23. 

(24). The Farriers W 24 

London Catalogue: Page 50, No. 24. 

(25). The Winged Hat W 25 

Boston Catalogue: Page 25, No. 13. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 88, No. 202. 
London Catalogue: Page 50, No. 25. 

(26). Gants de Suede W 26 

Boston Catalogue: Page 25, No. 14. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 88, No. 203. 
London Catalogue: Page 50, No. 26. 

(27). TheTyresmith W 27 

Boston Catalogue: Page 25, No. 15. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 88, No. 204. 
London Catalogue: Page 50, No. 27. 

(28). Maunder's Fish-Shop, Chelsea W 28 

Boston Catalogue: Page 25, No. 16. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 88, No. 205. 
London Catalogue: Page 50, No. 28. 

(29). The Little Nude Model, Reading W 29 

Boston Catalogue: Page 25, No. 17. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 88, No. 206. 
London Catalogue: Page 50, No. 29. 

(30). The Dancing Girl W 30 

Boston Catalogue: Page 25, No. 18. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 88, No. 207. 
London Catalogue: Page 50, No. 30. 



WHISTLER'S LITHOGRAPHS 239 

(31). The Model Draping W 31 

Paris Catalogue: Page 88, No. 208. 
London Catalogue: Page 50, No. 31. 

(32). The Horoscope W 32 

Boston Catalogue: Page 25, No. 19. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 89, No. 209. 
London Catalogue: Page 50, No. 32. 

(33). The Novel. Girl Reading W 33 

Boston Catalogue: Page 25, No. 20. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 89, No. 211. 
London Catalogue: Page 50, No. 33. 

(34). Gatti's W 34 

London Catalogue: Page 50, No. 34. 

(35). Hotel Colbert Windows W 35 

Paris Catalogue: Page 89, No. 211. 
London Catalogue: Page 50, No. 35. 

(36). Cock and Hens, Hotel Colbert W 36 

Paris Catalogue: Page 89, No. 212. 
London Catalogue: Page 50, No. 36. 

(37). Staircase W 37 

London Catalogue: Page 50, No. 37. 

(38). The Garden W 38 

Boston Catalogue: Page 25, No. 21. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 89, No. 213. 

Called in Paris Catalogue "Le The" (The Tea 
Party.) 
London Catalogue: Page 50, No. 38. 



240 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

(39). Vitre— The Canal in Brittany W 39 

Boston Catalogue: Page 26, No. 22. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 89, No. 214. 
London Catalogue: Page 50, No. 39. 

(40). The Market Place— Vitre W 40 

Boston Catalogue: Page 26, No. 23. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 89, No. 215. 
London Catalogue: Page 50, No. 40. 

(41). Gabled Roofs— Vitre W 41 

Paris Catalogue: Page 89, No. 216. 
* London Catalogue: Page 50, No. 41. 

(42). The Clock-Makers, Paimpol W 42 

Boston Catalogue: Page 26, No. 24. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 89, No. 217. 

(43). The Steps. Luxembourg W43 

Boston Catalogue: Page 26, No. 25. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 89, No. 218. 
London Catalogue: Page 50, No. 43. 

(44). Conversation Under the Statue — 

Luxembourg Gardens W 44 

Paris Catalogue: Page 89, No. 219. 
London Catalogue: Page 50, No. 44. 

(45) . The Pantheon from the Terrace 

of the Luxembourg Gardens W 45 

Paris Catalogue: Page 90, No. 220. 
London Catalogue: Page 51, No. 45. 

(46). The Draped Figure— Seated W 46 

Boston Catalogue: Page 26, No. 26. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 90, No. 221. 
London Catalogue: Page 51, No. 46. 



WHISTLER'S LITHOGRAPHS 241 

(47). Nude Model Reclining W 47 

Paris Catalogue: Page 90, No. 222. 
London Catalogue: Page 51, No. 47. 

(48). Nursemaids "Les Bonnes du Luxembourg" W 48 
Boston Catalogue: Page 26, No. 27. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 90, No. 223. 
London Catalogue: Page 51, No. 48. 

(49). The Long Balcony W 49 

Paris Catalogue: Page 90, No. 224. 
London Catalogue: Page 51, No. 49. 

(50). The Little Balcony W 50 

Paris Catalogue: Page 90, No. 225. 
London Catalogue: Page 51, No. 50. 

(51). Little Draped Figure, Leaning W 51 

Paris Catalogue: Page 90, No. 226. 
London Catalogue: Page 51, No. 51. 

(52). The Long Gallery, Louvre W 52 

Boston Catalogue: Page 26, No. 28. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 90, No. 227. 
London Catalogue: Page 51, No. 52. 

(53). The Whitesmiths, Impasse des Carmelites W 53 

Boston Catalogue: Page 26, No. 29. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 90, No. 228. 
London Catalogue: Page 51, No. 53. 

(54). Tete-a-Tete in the Garden W 54 

Paris Catalogue: Page 91, No. 229. 
London Catalogue: Page 51, No. 54. 

(55). The Terrace, Luxembourg W 55 

Paris Catalogue: Page 91, No. 230. 
London Catalogue: Page 51, No. 55. 



242 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

(56). The Little Cafe au Bois W 56 

Paris Catalogue: Page 91, No. 231. 
London Catalogue: Page 51, No. 56. 

(57). Late Picquet W 57 

Paris Catalogue: Page 91, No. 232. 
London Catalogue: Page 51, No. 57. 

(58). The Laundress. La Blanchisseuse de la Place Dau- 
phine W 58 

Boston Catalogue: Page 26, No. 30. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 91, No. 233. 
London Catalogue: Page 51, No. 58. 

(59). Rue Furstenburg W 59 

Boston Catalogue: Page 26, No. 31. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 91, No. 234. 
London Catalogue: Page 51, No. 59. 

(60). Confidences in the Garden W 60 

Paris Catalogue: Page 91, No. 235. 
London Catalogue: Page 51, No. 60. 

(61). La Jolie New-Yorkaise W 61 

Paris Catalogue: Page 91, No. 236. 
London Catalogue: Page 51, No. 61. 

(62). La Belle Dame Paresseuse W 62 

Boston Catalogue: Page 26, No. 32. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 91, No. 237. 

(63). La Belle Jardiniere [W 63 

Boston Catalogue: Page 27, No. 33. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 91, No. 238. 
London Catalogue: Page 51, No. 63. 



WHISTLER'S LITHOGRAPHS 243 

(64). The Duet M 64 

Boston Catalogue: Page 27, No. 34. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 91, No. 239. 
London Catalogue: Page 51, No. 64. 

(65). The Duet, No. 2. W 65 

Paris Catalogue: Page 91, No. 240. 

(66). Stephane Mallarme ,W Q6 

Boston Catalogue: Page 27, No. 35. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 91, No. 241. 
London Catalogue: Page 51, No. 66. 

(67). The Draped Figure, Back View W 67 

Paris Catalogue: Page 92, No. 242. 

(68). La Robe Rouge W. 68 

Boston Catalogue: Page 27, No. 36. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 92, No. 243. 
London Catalogue: Page 52, No. 68. 

(69). La Belle Dame Endormie W 69 

Boston Catalogue: Page 27, No. 37. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 92, No. 244. 
London Catalogue: Page 52, No. 69. 

(70). La Fruitiere de la Rue de Grenelle W 70 

Boston Catalogue: Page 27, No. 38. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 92, No. 245. 
London Catalogue: Page 52, No. 70. 

(71). The Sisters W 71 

Boston Catalogue: Page 27, No. 39. 
London Catalogue: Page 71. 

(72). The Forge. Passage du Dragon M 72 

Boston Catalogue: Page 27, No. 40. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 92, No. 246. 
London Catalogue: Page 52, No. 72. 



244 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

(73). The Smith, Passage du Dragon W 73 

Boston Catalogue: Page 27, No. 41. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 92, No. 247. 
London Catalogue: Page 52, No. 73. 

(74). The Priest's House— Rouen W 74 

Boston Catalogue: Page 27, No. 42. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 92, No. 248. 
London Catalogue: Page 52, No. 74. 

(75). A Portrait W 75 

Boston Catalogue: 
London Catalogue: 

(76). Figure Study 

Boston Catalogue: 
London Catalogue: 

(77). Study 

London Catalogue: 

(78). The Doctor 

Boston Catalogue: Page 28, No. 45. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 92, No. 249. 
London Catalogue: Page 52, No. 78. 

(79). Walter Sickert W 79 

Boston Catalogue: Page 28, No. 46. 
London Catalogue: Page 52, No. 79. 

(80). Mother and Child— No. 1. W 80 

Boston Catalogue: Page 28, No. 47. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 92, No. 250. 
London Catalogue: Page 52, No. 80. 

(81). Back of the Gaiety Theatre W 81 

Paris Catalogue: Page 92, No. 251. 
London Catalogue: Page 52, No. 81. 



Page 27, No. 43. 
Page 52, No. 75. 




Page 28, No. 44. 
Page 52, No. 76. 


W 76 


Page 52, No. Tt. 


W 77 




W 78 



WHISTLER'S LITHOGRAPHS 245 

(82). Girl with Bowl W 82 

Paris Catalogue: Page 92, No. 252. 
London Catalogue: Page 52, No. 82. 

(83). The Little Doorway, Lyme-Regis W 83 

Boston Catalogue: Page 28, No. 48. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 92, No. 253. 
London Catalogue: Page 52, No. 83. 

(84). The Master Smith W 84 

Paris Catalogue: Page 92, No. 254. 
London Catalogue: Page 52, No. 84. 

(85). The Sunny Smithy W 85 

Paris Catalogue: Page 93, No. 255. 
London Catalogue: Page 52, No. 85. 

(86). The Good Shoe W 86 

Paris Catalogue: Page 93, No. 256. 
London Catalogue: Page 52, No. 86. 

(87). Father and Son W, 87 

Paris Catalogue: Page 93, No. 257. 
London Catalogue: Page 52, No. 87. 

(88). The Smith's Yard W. 88 

Boston Catalogue: Page 28, No. 49. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 93, No. 258. 
London Catalogue: Page 52, No, 88. 

(89). The Strong Arm W 89 

Paris Catalogue: Page 93, No. 259. 
London Catalogue: Page 52, No. 89. 

(90). The Blacksmith Wi 90 

Paris Catalogue: Page 93, No. 260. 
London Catalogue: Page 53, No. 90. 



246 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

(91). The Brothers W 91 

Boston Catalogue: Page 28, No. 50. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 93, No. 261. 
London Catalogue: Page 53, No. 91. 

(92). The Fair W 92 

Boston Catalogue: Page 28, No. 51. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 93, No. 262. 

Called in Paris Catalogue: Lyme-Regis — The 
Fair. 
London Catalogue: Page 53, No. 92. 

(93). John Grove W 93 

Boston Catalogue: Page 28, No. 52. 
London Catalogue: Page 53, No. 93. 

(94). The Little Steps. Lyme-Regis W 94 

Boston Catalogue: Page 28, No. 53. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 93, No. 263. 
London Catalogue: Page 53, No. 94. 

(95). Study of a Horse W 95 

London Catalogue: Page 53, No. 95. 

(96). Sunday— Lyme-Regis W 96 

Boston Catalogue: Page 28, No. 54. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 93, No. 264. 
London Catalogue: Page 53, No. 96. 

(97). The Fifth of November W 97 

Paris Catalogue: Page 93, No. 265. 
London Catalogue: Page 53, No. 97. 

(98). The Old Smith's Story W 98 

Paris Catalogue: Page 93, No. 266. 
London Catalogue: Page 53, No. 98. 

(99). Figure Study in Colors W 99 

Boston Catalogue: Page 29, No. 55. 
London Catalogue: Page 53, No. 99. 



WHISTLER'S LITHOGRAPHS 247 

(100). Red House, Paimpol W 100 

Boston Catalogue: Page 29, No. 56. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 95, No. 285. 
London Catalogue: Page 53, No. 100. 

(101). Yellow House, Lannion W 101 

Boston Catalogue: Page 29, No. 57. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 95, No. 286. 
London Catalogue: Page 53, No. 101. 

(102). Mother and Child— No. 2 W 102 

Boston Catalogue: Page 29, No. 58. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 93, No. 267. 
London Catalogue: Page 53, No. 102. 

(103). Firelight— Mrs. Pennell W 103 

London Catalogue: Page 53, No. 103. 

(104). Firelight— Joseph Pennell, No. 1. W 104 

London Catalogue: Page 53, No. 104. 

(105). Firelight— Joseph Pennell, No. 2. W 105 

London Catalogue: Page 53, No. 105. 

(106). The Barber's Shop in the Mews W 106 

London Catalogue: Page 53, No. 106. 

(107). Portrait of T. Way, No. 1. W 107 

London Catalogue: Page 53, No. 107. 

(108). Portrait of T. Way, No. 2. W 108 

London Catalogue: Page 53, No. 108. 

(109). Kensington Gardens W 109 

Boston Catalogue: Page 29, No. 59. 
London Catalogue Page 53, No. 109. 

(110). Little Evelyn W HO 

Boston Catalogue: Page 29, No. 60. 
London Catalogue: Page 53, No. 110. 



248 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

(111). Study— Joseph Pennell, No. 3. W 111 

Boston Catalogue: Page 29, No. 61. 
London Catalogue: Page 54, No. 111. 

(112). The Russian Schube — Portrait of Joseph Pennell, 
No. 4. W 112 

London Catalogue: Page 53, No. 112. 

(113). Needlework W 113 

Boston Catalogue: Page 29, No. 62. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 94, No. 268. 
London Catalogue: Page 54, No. 113. 

(114). The Manager's Window— Gaiety Theatre W 114 

Boston Catalogue: Page 29, No. 63. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 94, No. 269. 
London Catalogue: Page 54, No. 114. 

(115). Little Dorothy W 115 

London Catalogue: Page 54, No. 115. 

(116). Portrait Study W 116 

London Catalogue: Page 54, No. 116. 

(117). Portrait Study— A Young Man W 117 

London Catalogue: Page 54, No. 117. 

(118). Savoy Pigeons W 118 

Boston Catalogue: Page 29, No. 64. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 94, No. 270. 
London Catalogue: Page 54, No. 118. 

(119). Evening— Little Waterloo Bridge W 119 

Boston Catalogue: Page 30, No. 65. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 94, No. 271. 
London Catalogue: Page 54, No. 119. 



WHISTLER'S LITHOGRAPHS 249 

(120). Charing Cross Railway Bridge W 120 

Boston Catalogue: Page 30, No. 66. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 94, No. 272. 
London Catalogue: Page 54, No. 120. 

(121). Little London W 121 

Boston Catalogue: Page 30, No. 67. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 94, No. 273. 
London Catalogue: Page 54, No. 121. 

(122). The Siesta W 122 

London Catalogue: Page 54, No. 122. 

(123). Waterloo Bridge W 123 

Boston Catalogue: Page 30, No. 68. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 94, No. 274. 
London Catalogue: Page 54, No. 123. 

(124). By the Balcony W 124 

London Catalogue: Page 54, No. 124. 

(125). The Thames W. 125 

Boston Catalogue: Page 30, No. 69. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 94, No. 275. 
London Catalogue: Page 54, No. 125. 

(126). St. Anne's— Soho W 126 

Boston Catalogue: Page 30, No. 70. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 94, No. 276. 
London Catalogue: Page 54, No. 126. 

(127). Sketch of Mr. Henley W 127 

Boston Catalogue: Page 30, No. 71. 
London Catalogue: Page 54, No. 127. 

(128). The Butcher's Dog W 128 

Boston Catalogue: Page 30, No. 72. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 94, No. 277. 
London Catalogue: Page 54, No. 128. 



250 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

(129). St. Giles-in-the-Fields W 129 

Boston Catalogue: Page 30, No. 73. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 94, No. 278. 
London Catalogue: Page 54, No. 129. 

(130). Little London Model W 130 

London Catalogue: Page 54, No. 130. 

(131). Maude Seated— A Lady in a Big Chair W 131 

London Catalogue: Page 55, No. 133. 

(132). Old Battersea Bridge, No. 2 W 132 

London Catalogue: Page 59, No. 145. 

(133). Fireplace— Vitre W 133 

Boston Catalogue: Page 31, No. 80. 
London Catalogue: Page 54, No. 131. 

(134). Mother and Child, No. 3 W 134 

Paris Catalogue: Page 95, No. 280. 
London Catalogue: Page 56, No. 135. 

(135). Mother and Child, No. 4 W 135 

London Catalogue: Page 57, No. 139. 
(Description differs in London Catalogue.) 

(136). Mother and Child, No. 5 W 136 

London Catalogue: Page 57, No. 140. 

(Description differs in London Catalogue.) 

(137). Portrait of M. le Comte de Montesquiou, No. 1 

W 137 
London Catalogue: Page 58, No. 144. 

(138). Comte de Montesquiou, No. 2 W 138 

London Catalogue: Page 60, No. 149. 

(139). Count Robert de Montesquiou, No. 3 W 139 

(Not exhibited at the Boston, London or Paris me- 
morials.) 



WHISTLER'S LITHOGRAPHS 25 1 

(140). The Garden Porch— Le Jardin, Rue du Bac, No. 2 

W 140 
Paris Catalogue: Page 95, No. 281. 
London Catalogue: Page 56, No. 137. 

(141). The Man with a Sickle— Le Jardin, Rue du Bac, 
No. 1, W 141 

Paris Catalogue: Page 94, No. 279. 
London Catalogue: Page 55, No. 134. 

(142). Dr. Whistler, No. 2 W 142 

London Catalogue: Page 58, No. 143. 

(143). The Black Bonnet— Perhaps "Unfinished Sketch 
of Lady Haden." W 143 

London Catalogue: Page 58, No. 142. 

(144). Two Sketches W 144 

London Catalogue: Page 56, No. 136. 

(145). A Smith of Lyme-Regis W 145 

London Catalogue: Page 57, No. 141. 

(146). Two Slight Sketches W 146 

London Catalogue: Page 57, No. 138. 

(147). Afternoon Tea W 147 

Boston Catalogue: Page 30, No. 74. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 95, No. 282. 
London Catalogue: Page 59, No. 146. 

(148). La Danseuse W 148 

London Catalogue: Page 55, No. 132. 

(149). Portrait Study: Miss Charlotte R. Williams W 149 

(Not in Boston, London or Paris memorial cata- 
logues.) 



252 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

(150). Stephane Mallarme, No. 2 W 150 

(Not in Boston, London or Paris memorial cata- 
logues.) 

(151). The Shoe-Maker W 151 

Paris Catalogue: Page 95, No. 283. 
London Catalogue: Page 59, No. 147. 

(152). A Lady Seated W 152 

Boston Catalogue: Page 30, No. 75. 

(153). The Medici Collar W 153 

(Not in Boston, London or Paris memorial cata- 
logues.) 

(154). Nude Model, Standing W 154 

(Not in Boston, London or Paris memorial cata- 
logues.) 

(155). Draped Figure, Standing W 155 

London Catalogue: Page 60, No. 151. 

(156). Draped Figure, Reclining W 156 

Boston Catalogue: (Girl on couch) Page 31, No. 76. 
London Catalogue: Page 61, No. 152. 

(157). Lady and Child W 157 

Paris Catalogue: Page 95, No. 287, or 288? 

(158). The Cap W 158 

Boston Catalogue: Page 31, No. 77 or 78. 

(159). The Girl W 159 

Boston Catalogue: Page 31, No. 77 or 78. 

(160). Two Sketches W 160 

London Catalogue: Page 60, No. 148. 



WHISTLER'S LITHOGRAPHS 253 

(161). The Fur Jacket W 161 

Boston Catalogue: Page 31, No. 79. 
(Not in Way Catalogue, 1905 Edition.) 
Numbers 287 and 288 of the Paris Catalogue, Page 95, 
are given simply as Colour Study No. 1, and Colour Study 
No. 2, without a Way number. They probably appear in 
the new edition of the Way Catalogue but are not easy to 
identify as no description of them is given in the Paris Cata- 
logue. 



A LIST OF 

WHISTLER'S ETCHINGS 



A LIST OF 

WHISTLER'S ETCHINGS 

SHOWN AT THE MEMORIAL EXHIBITIONS AT 
BOSTON, LONDON AND PARIS IN 1904 AND 
1905, AND BY THE GROLIER CLUB IN 1904. 

Compiled from the Catalogues of the Bxhibitiont, with the few num- 
bers not shown added.* 

The letter W before the number on the right refers to the 
Wedmore catalogue, the letter S to the Supplement by an 
Amateur and the letter G to the Grolier Club catalogue of 1904. 

Only the subjects are given. The two noble monuments to 
Whistler's fame as an etcher, the catalogue to be published by 
the Grolier Club and Mr. Howard Mansfield's catalogue for the 
Caxton Club, will contain the results of indefatigable research 
and care in the compilation of all obtainable data. As in the 
case of the lithographs, the names and descriptions of the plates 
have sometimes differed in the various catalogues. It is hoped 
that in the present lists a reasonable degree of accuracy has 
been attained in giving to each title its correct Wedmore, sup- 
plement, or Grolier number. So large a proportion of the sub- 
jects were in the Grolier Club Exhibition, that when a sub- 
ject was exhibited at any one of the Memorial Exhibitions 
and not at the Grolier Club, a note has been made to that effect. 

Where Grolier Club follows the title of a subject, it indi- 
cates that the subject was exhibited at the Grolier Club only, 
and not at the Memorial Exhibitions. 

(1). Early Portrait of Whistler W 1 

Groli er Club. No. 1. 

From the Wedmore Catalogue. 



258 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

(2). Annie Haden W 2 

Grolier Club. No. 2. 

(3). The Dutchman Holding the Glass W 3 

Grolier Club. No. 3. 

(4). Liverdun W 4 

Boston Catalogue: Page 3, No. 1. 
London Catalogue: Page 21, No. 4. 

(5). La Retameuse (The Tinker Woman) W 5 

Boston Catalogue: Page 3, No. 2. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 101, No. 291. 
London Catalogue: Page 21, No. 5. 

(6). En Plein Soleil W 6 

London Catalogue: Page 21, No. 6. 

(7). The Unsafe Tenement W 7 

Boston Catalogue: Page 3, No. 3. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 101, No. 296. 
London Catalogue: Page 21, No. 7. 

(8). The Dog on the Kennel W 8 

London Catalogue: Page 21, No. 8. 

(9). La Mere Gerard W 9 

Paris Catalogue: Page 101, No. 292. 
London Catalogue: Page 21, No. 9. 

(10). La Mere Gerard, Stooping iW 10 

Grolier Club. No. 11. 

(11). Street at Saverne W 11 

Boston Catalogue: Page 3, No. 6. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 101, No. 293. 
London Catalogue: Page 21, No. 11. 



WHISTLER'S ETCHINGS 259 

(12). Gretchen at Heidelberg W 12 

Boston Catalogue: Page 3, No. 7. 

(13). Little Arthur W 13 

Paris Catalogue: Page 101, No. 294. 
London Catalogue: Page 21, No. 13. 

(14). La Vielle aux Loques W 14 

Boston Catalogue: Page 3, No. 8. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 101, No. 295. 
London Catalogue: Page 21, No. 14. 

(15). Annie W 15 

Boston Catalogue: Page 4, No. 9. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 101, No. 296. 
London Catalogue: Page 21, No. 15. 

(16). La Marchande de Moutarde W 16 

Boston Catalogue: Page 4, No. 10. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 101, No. 297. 
London Catalogue: Page 21, No. 16. 

(17). The Rag Gatherers W 17 

Boston Catalogue: Page 4, No. 11. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 101, No. 298. 
London Catalogue: Page 21, No. 17. 

(IS). Fumette W 18 

Boston Catalogue: Page 4, No. 13. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 101, No. 299. 
London Catalogue: Page 21, No. 18. 

(19). The Kitchen' W 19 

Boston Catalogue: Page 4, No. 14. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 101, No. 300. 
London Catalogue: Page 21, No. 19. 



260 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

(20). The Title to the French Set W 20 

1858. Paris Catalogue: Page 101, No. 301. 
London Catalogue: Page 21, No. 20. 

(21). Auguste Delatre [W 21 

Boston Catalogue: Page 4, No. 16. 
London Catalogue: Page 21, No. 21. 

(22). A Little Boy W 22 

London Catalogue: Page 22, No. 22. 

(23). Seymour W 23 

London Catalogue: Page 22, No. 23. 

(24). Annie, Seated W 24 

Boston Catalogue: Page 4, No. 17. 
London Catalogue: Page 22, No. 24. 

(25). Reading by Lamp-Light W 25 

Boston Catalogue: Page 4, No. 18. 
London Catalogue: Page 22, No. 25. 

(26). The Music Room W 26 

Boston Catalogue: Page 4, No. 20. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 101, No. 302. 
London Catalogue: Page 22, No. 26. 

(27). Soupe a Trois Sous W 27 

Boston Catalogue: Page 5, No. 22. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 102, No. 303. 
London Catalogue: Page 22, No. 27. 

(28). Bibi Valentin W 28 

Boston Catalogue: Page 5, No. 23. 

1859. Paris Catalogue: Page 102, No. 304. 
London Catalogue: Page 22, No. 28. 

(29). Reading in Bed W 29 

London Catalogue: Page 22, No. 29. 



WHISTLER'S ETCHINGS 261 

(30). Bibi Lalouette W. 30 

Boston Catalogue: Page 5, No. 25. 

1859. Paris Catalogue: Page 102, No. 305. 
London Catalogue: Page 22, No. 30. 

(31). The Wine Glass W 31 

Boston Catalogue: Page 5, No. 26. 
London Catalogue: Page 22, No. 31. 

(32). Greenwich Pensioner W 32 

Boston Catalogue: Page 5, No. 27. 
London Catalogue: Page 22, No. 32. 

(33). Greenwich Park W 33 

Boston Catalogue: Page 5, No. 28. 
London Catalogue: Page 22, No. 33. 

(34). Nursemaid and Child W 34 

London Catalogue: Page 22, No. 34. 

(35). Thames Warehouses W 35 

Boston Catalogue: Page 5, No. 30. 

1859. Paris Catalogue: Page 102, No. 306. 
London Catalogue: Page 22, No. 35. 

(36). Westminster Bridge W 36 

Boston Catalogue: Page 5, No. 31. 

1859. Paris Catalogue: Page 102, No. 307. 
London Catalogue: Page 22, No. 36. 

(37). Limehouse W 37 

Boston Catalogue: Page 5, No. 32. 

1859. Paris Catalogue: Page 102, No. 308. 
London Catalogue: Page 22, No. 37. 

(38). A Wharf W 38 

London Catalogue: Page 22, No. 38. 



262 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

(39). Tyzac, Whiteley & Co W 39 

Boston Catalogue: Page 5, No. 33. 
1859. Paris Catalogue: Page 102, No. 309. 

London Catalogue: Page 22, No. 39. 

(40). Black Lion Wharf W 40 

Boston Catalogue: Page 6, No. 34. 
1850. Paris Catalogue: Page 102, No. 310. 

London Catalogue: Page 22, No. 40. 

(41). The Pool W 41 

Boston Catalogue: Page 6, No. 35. 
1850. Paris Catalogue: Page 102, No. 311. 
London Catalogue: Page 22, No. 41. 

(42). Thames Police W 42 

Boston Catalogue: Page 6, No. 36. 
London Catalogue: Page 22, No. 42. 

(43). 'Long-shore Men W 43 

Boston Catalogue: Page 6, No. 37. 
London Catalogue: Page 23, No. 43. 

(44). The Lime-Burner W U 

Boston Catalogue: Page 6, No. 38. 
1859. Paris Catalogue: Page 102, No. 312. 

London Catalogue: Page 23, No. 44. 

(45). Billingsgate W 45 

Boston Catalogue: Page 6, No. 39. 
London Catalogue: Page 23, No. 45. 

(46). Landscape with the Horse W 46 

London Catalogue: Page 23, No. 46. 

(47). Arthur Seymour W 47 

Boston Catalogue: Page 6, No. 41. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 102, No. 313. 



WHISTLER'S ETCHINGS 263 

(48). Becquet W 48 

Boston Catalogue: Page 6, No. 42. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 102, No. 314. 
London Catalogue: Page 23, No. 48. 

(49). Astruc, A Literary Man W 49 

Boston Catalogue: Page 6, No. 43. 

(50). Fumette, Standing W 50 

Boston Catalogue: Page 6, No. 44. 
1850. Paris Catalogue: Page 102, No. 315. 

London Catalogue: Page 23, No. 50. 

(51). Fumette's Bent Head W 51 

Boston Catalogue: Page 7, No. 45. 
London Catalogue: Page 23, No. 51. 

(52). Whistler W 52 

Boston Catalogue: Page 7, No. 46. 
1850. Paris Catalogue: Page 102, No. 316. 
London Catalogue: Page 23, No. 52. 

(53). Drouet W 53 

Boston Catalogue: Page 7, No. 47. 
1850. Paris Catalogue: Page 102, No. 317. 
London Catalogue: Page 23, No. 53. 

(54). Finette W 54 

Boston Catalogue: Page 7, No. 48. 
1850. Paris Catalogue: Page 102, No. 318. 

London Catalogue: Page 23, No. 54. 

(55) . Paris : Isle de la Cite W 55 

Boston Catalogue: Page 7, No. 49. 
London Catalogue: Page 23, No. 55. 



264 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

(56). Venus W 56 

(Not in the Catalogues of the Boston, London or 
Paris Exhibitions or in that of the Grolier Club Exhi- 
bition.) 

(57). Annie Haden W 57 

Boston Catalogue: Page 7, No. 50. 
1860. Paris Catalogue: Page 102, No. 319. 

London Catalogue: Page 22, No. 57. 

(58). Mr. Mann W 58 

Boston Catalogue: Page 7, No. 51. 
London Catalogue: Page 23, No. 58. 

(59). The Penny Boat W 59 

London Catalogue: Page 23, No. 59. 

(60). Rotherhithe W 60 

Boston Catalogue: Page 7, No. 52. 
1860. Paris Catalogue: Page 102, No. 320. 
London Catalogue: Page 23, No. 60. 

(61). Axenfeld W 61 

Boston Catalogue: Page 7, No. 54. 

1860. Paris Catalogue: Page 102, No. 321. 
London Catalogue: Page 23, No. 61. 

(62). The Engraver W 62 

Boston Catalogue: Page 7, No. 55. 

(63). The Forge W 63 

Boston Catalogue: Page 8, No. 56. 

1861. Paris Catalogue: Page 103, No. 322. 
London Catalogue: Page 23, No. 63. 

(64). Joe W 64 

Boston Catalogue: Page 8, No. 57. 



WHISTLER'S ETCHINGS 

(65). The Miser 

Boston Catalogue: Page 8, No. 60. 
London Catalogue: Page 24, No. 65. 

(66). Vauxhall Bridge 

London Catalogue: Page 24, No. 66. 

(67). Millbank 

London Catalogue: Page 24, No. 67. 

(68). The Punt 

London Catalogue: Page 24, No. 68. 

(69). Sketching 

London Catalogue: Page 24, No. 69. 

(70). Westminster Bridge in Progress 

London Catalogue: Page 24, No. 70. 

(71). The Little Wapping 

London Catalogue: Page 24, No. 71. 

(72). The Little Pool 

1861. Paris Catalogue: Page 103, No. 323. 
London Catalogue: Page 24, No. 72. 

(73). The Tiny Pool 

Grolier Club: No. 76. 

(74). Ratcliffe Highway 

Grolier Club: No. 77. 

(75). Encamping 

London Catalogue: Page 24, No. 75. 

(76). Ross Winana 

Boston Catalogue: Page 8, No. 61. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 103, No. 324. 
London Catalogue: Page 24, No. 76. 



W 65 


W 66 


W 67 


W 68 


W 69 


W 70 


W 71 


W 72 


W 73 


W 74 


W 75 


W 76 



266 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

(77). The Storm W 77 

Boston Catalogue: Page 8, No. 62. 
1861. Paris Catalogue: Page 103, No. 325. 

London Catalogue: Page 24, No. 77. 

(78). Little Smithfield W 78 

London Catalogue: Page 24, No. 78. 

(79). CadoganPier W 79 

Boston Catalogue: Page 8, No. 63. 
London Catalogue: Page 24, No. 79. 

(80). Old Hungerford Bridge W 80 

Boston Catalogue: Page 8, No. 64. 
London Catalogue: Page 24, No. 80. 

(81). Chelsea Wharf W 81 

London Catalogue: Page 24, No. 81. 

(82). Amsterdam, Etched from the Tolhuis W 82 

Boston Catalogue: Page 8, No. 65. 
1863. Paris Catalogue: Page 103, No. 326. 
London Catalogue: Page 24, No. 82. 

(83). Weary W 8S 

Boston Catalogue: Page 9, No. 67. 
1863. Paris Catalogue: Page 103, No. 327. 

London Catalogue: Page 24, No. 83. 

(84). Shipping at Liverpool W 84 

Grolier Club, No. 87. 

(85). Chelsea Bridge and Church W 85 

London Catalogue: Page 24, No. 85. 

(86). Speke Hall W 86 

Boston Catalogue: Page 9, No. 68. 
1870. Paris Catalogue: Page 103, No. 328. 

London Catalogue: Page 24, No. 86. 



WHISTLER'S ETCHINGS 267 

(87). The Model, Resting W 87 

Boston Catalogue: Page 9, No. 70. 
London Catalogue: Page 25, No. 87. 

(88). Whistler's Mother W 88 

Boston Catalogue: Page 9, No. 71. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 103, No. 329. 
London Catalogue: Page 25, No. 88. 

(89). Swan Brewery W 89 

London Catalogue: Page 25, No. 89. 

(90). Fosco W 90 

London Catalogue: Page 25, No. 90. 

(91). The Velvet Dress W 91 

Boston Catalogue: Page 9, No. 72. 
1873. Paris Catalogue: Page 103, No. 330. 

(92). The Little Velvet Dress W 92 

Boston Catalogue: Page 9, No. 75. 
1873. Paris Catalogue: Page 103, No. 331. 
London Catalogue: Page 25, No. 92. 

(93). F. R. Leyland W 93 

London Catalogue: Page 25, No. 93. 

(94). Fanny Leyland W 94 

Boston Catalogue: Page 9, No. 76. 
1873. Paris Catalogue: Page 103, No. 332. 
London Catalogue: Page 25, No. 94. 

(95). Elinor Leyland W 95 

Boston Catalogue: Page 9, No. 77. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 103, No. 333. 
London Catalogue: Page 25, No. 95. 



268 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

(96). Florence Leyland k W 96 

Boston Catalogue: Page 9, No. 78. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 103, No. 334. 
London Catalogue: Page 25, No. 96. 

(97). Reading a Book W 97 

London Catalogue: Page 25, No. 97. 

(98). Tatting W 98 

London Catalogue: Page 25, No. 98. 

(99). Maude, Standing W 99 

Boston Catalogue: Page 9, No. 79. 
London Catalogue: Page 25, No. 99. 

(100). Maude, Seated W 100 

London Catalogue: Page 25, No. 100. 

(101). The Beach W 101 

Grolier Club, No. 107. 

(102). Tillie: A Model [W 102 

Boston Catalogue: Page 10, No. 80. 
London Catalogue: Page 25, No. 102. 

(103). Seated Girl W 103 

Boston Catalogue: Page 10, No. 81. 

(104). The Desk W 104 

London Catalogue: Page 25, No. 104. 

(105). Resting W 105 

London Catalogue: Page 25, No. 105. 

(106). Agnes W 106 

Boston Catalogue: Page 10, No. 82. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 103, No. 335. 
London Catalogue: Page 25, No. 106. 



WHISTLER'S ETCHINGS 269 

(107). The Model, Lying Down W 107 

Paris Catalogue: Page 103, No. 336. 

(108). Two Sketches W 108 

(Not included in the Boston, London or Paris Me- 
morial Exhibitions or in that of the Grolier Club.) 

(109). The Boy W 109 

Boston Catalogue: Page 10, No. 83. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 103, No. 337. 
London Catalogue: Page 26, No. 109. 

(110). Swinburne W 110 

(Neither 110 nor 111 was included in the Memo- 
rial Exhibitions or in that of the Grolier Club.) 

(111). Lady at a Window W 111 

(112). A Child on a Couch W 112 

London Catalogue: Page 26, No. 112. 

(113). Sketch of a Girl, Nude W 113 

(Not included in the Memorial Exhibitions or in 
that of the Grolier Club.) 

(114). Steamboats off the Tower W 114 

Boston Catalogue: Page 10, No. 85. 
London Catalogue: Page 26, No. 114. 

(115). The Little Forge W 115 

Boston Catalogue: Page 10, No. 86. 
1875. Paris Catalogue: Page 103, No. 338. 
London Catalogue: Page 26, No. 115. 

(116). Two Ships W 116 

London Catalogue: Page 26, No. 116. 



270 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

(117). The Piano W 117 

Boston Catalogue: Page 10, No. 88. 
1875. Paris Catalogue: Page 103, No. 339. 
London Catalogue: Page 26, No. 117. 

(118). The Scotch Widow W 118 

Boston Catalogue: Page 10, No. 89. 

(119). Speke Shore W 119 

Boston Catalogue: Page 10, No. 90. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 103, No. 340. 
London Catalogue: Page 26, No. 119. 

(120). The Dam Wood W 120 

Boston Catalogue: Page 10, No. 91. 
1873. Paris Catalogue: Page 104, No. 341. 
London Catalogue: Page 26, No. 120. 

(121). Shipbuilder's Yard W 121 

London Catalogue: Page 26, No. 121. 

(122). The Guitar-Player W 122 

Boston Catalogue: Page 11, No. 92. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 104, No. 342. 
London Catalogue: Page 26, No. 122. 

(123). London Bridge W 123 

Boston Catalogue: Page 11, No. 93. 
London Catalogue: Page 26, No. 123. 

(124). Price's Candle Works W 124 

Boston Catalogue: Page 11, No. 95. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 104, No. 343. 
London Catalogue: Page 26, No. 124. 

(125). Battersea: Dawn W 125 

Boston Catalogue: Page 11, No. 98. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 104, No. 344. 
London Catalogue: Page 26, No. 125. 



WHISTLER'S ETCHINGS 271 

(126). The Muff W 126 

London Catalogue: Page 27, No. 126. 

(127). A Sketch of Ships W 127 

London Catalogue: Page 27, No. 127. 

(128). The White Tower W 128 

London Catalogue: Page 27, No. 128. 

(129). The Troubled Thames W 129 

(Not included in the Memorial Exhibitions or that 
of the Grolier Club.) 

(130). A Sketch from Billingsgate W 130 

Boston Catalogue: Page 11, No. 99. 
London Catalogue: Page 27, No. 130. 

(131). Fishing Boats, Hastings W 131 

London Catalogue: Page 27, No. 131. 

(132). Wych Street W 132 

Paris Catalogue: Page 104, No. 345. 
London Catalogue: Page 27, No. 132. 

(133). Temple Bar W 133 

London Catalogue: Page 27, No. 133. 

(134). Free Trade Wharf W 134 

Boston Catalogue: Page 11, No. 100. 
London Catalogue: Page 27, No. 134. 

(135). The Thames, Toward Erith W 135 

Boston Catalogue: Page 11, No. 101. 
London Catalogue: Page 27, No. 135. 

(136). Lindsay Houses W 136 

Boston Catalogue: Page 11, No. 103. 
1878. Paris Catalogue: Page 104, No. 346. 
London Catalogue: Page 27, No. 136. 



272 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

(137). From Pickled Herring Stairs W 137 

Boston Catalogue: Page 11, No. 104. 
London Catalogue: Page 27, No. 137. 

(138). Lord Wolseley W 138 

Boston Catalogue: Page 12, No. 105. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 104, No. 347. 
London Catalogue: Page 27, No. 138. 

(139). Irving as Philip of Spain W 139 

London Catalogue: Page 27, No. 139. 

(140). St. James's Street W 140 

Boston Catalogue: Page 12, No. 106. 
London Catalogue: Page 27, No. 140. 

(141). Battersea Bridge W 141 

Boston Catalogue: Page 12, No. 107. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 104, No. 348. 
London Catalogue: Page 27, No. 141. 

(142). Whistler with the White Lock W 142 

Grolier Club. No. 143. 

(143). The Large Pool W 143 

Boston Catalogue: Page 12, No. 108. 
1879. Paris Catalogue: Page 104, No. 349. 
London Catalogue: Page 27, No. 143. 

(144). The "Adam and Eve," Old Chelsea W 144 

Boston Catalogue: Page 12, No. 110. 
London Catalogue: Page 27, No. 144. 

(145). Putney Bridge W 145 

Boston Catalogue: Page 12, No. 111. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 104, No. 350. 
London Catalogue: Page 27, No. 145. 



WHISTLER'S ETCHINGS 273 

(146). The Little Putney W 146 

Boston Catalogue: Page 12, No. 112. 
London Catalogue: Page 28, No. 146. 

(147). Hurlingham W 147 

Boston Catalogue: Page 12, No. 113. 
London Catalogue: Page 28, No. 147. 

(148). Fulham W 148 

Boston Catalogue: Page 12, No. 114. 
London Catalogue: Page 28, No. 148. 

(149). The Little Venice W 149 

Boston Catalogue: Page 13, No. 116. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 104, No. 351. 
London Catalogue: Page 28, No. 149. 

(150). Nocturne W 150 

Boston Catalogue: Page 13, No. 117. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 104, No. 352. 
London Catalogue: Page 28, No. 150. 

(151). The Little Mast W 151 

Paris Catalogue: Page 104, No. 353. 
London Catalogue: Page 28, No. 151. 

(152). The Little Lagoon W 152 

Boston Catalogue: Page 13, No. 119. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 104, No. 354. 
London Catalogue: Page 28, No. 152. 

(153). The Palaces W 153 

Boston Catalogue: Page 13, No. 120. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 104, No. 355. 
London Catalogue: Page 28, No. 153. 



274 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

(154). The Doorway W 154 

Boston Catalogue: Page 13, No. 121. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 105, No. 356. 
London Catalogue: Page 28, No. 154. 

(155). The Piazzetta W 155 

'Paris Catalogue: Page 105, No. 357. 
London Catalogue: Page 28, No. 155. 

(156). The Traghetto, Second Plate W 156 

Boston Catalogue: Page 13, No. 124. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 105, No. 358. 
London Catalogue: Page 28, No. 156. 

(157). The Riva, No. 1 W 157 

Paris Catalogue: Page 105, No. 359. 
London Catalogue: Page 28, No. 157. 

(158). Two Doorways W 153 

Boston Catalogue: Page 13, No. 125. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 105, No. 360. 
London Catalogue: Page 28, No. 158. 

(159). The Beggars W 159 

Boston Catalogue: Page 13, No. 127. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 105, No. 361. 
London Catalogue: Page 28, No. 159. 

(160). The Mast W 160 

Boston Catalogue: Page 13, No. 128. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 105, No. 362. 
London Catalogue: Page 28, No. 160. 

(161). Doorway and Vine W 161 

London Catalogue: Page 28, No. 161. 

(162). Wheelwright W 162 

London Catalogue: Page 28, No. 162. 



WHISTLER'S ETCHINGS 275 

(163). San Biagio W 163 

Boston Catalogue: Page 14, No. 129. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 105, No. 363. 
London Catalogue: Page 28, No. 163. 

(164). Bead-Stringers W 164 

Paris Catalogue: Page 105, No. 364. 
London Catalogue: Page 28, No. 164. 

(165). Turkeys W 165 

London Catalogue: Page 28, No. 165. 

(166). Fruit-Stall W 166 

Boston Catalogue: Page 14, No. 131. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 105, No. 365. 
London Catalogue: Page 28, No. 166. 

(167). San Giorgio W 167 

Boston Catalogue Page 14, No. 132. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 105, No. 366. 
London Catalogue: Page 28, No. 167. 

(168). Nocturne, Palaces W 168 

Boston Catalogue: Page 14, No. 133. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 105, No. 367. 
London Catalogue: Page 28, No. 168. 

(169). Long Lagoon W 169 

Boston Catalogue: Page 14, No. 135. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 105, No. 368. 
London Catalogue: Page 28, No. 169. 

(170). The Temple W 170 

London Catalogue: Page 29, No. 170. 

(171). The Bridge W 171 

Boston Catalogue: Page 14, No. 136. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 105, No. 369. 
London Catalogue: Page 29, No. 171. 



276 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

(172). Upright Venice W 172 

Boston Catalogue: Page 14, No. 137. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 105, No. 370. 
London Catalogue: Page 29, No. 172. 

(173). Little Court, Drury Lane W 173 

Paris Catalogue: Page 105, No. 371. 
London Catalogue: Page 29, No. 173. 

(174). Lobster Pots W 174 

London Catalogue: Page 29, No. 174. 

(175). The Riva, No. 2 W 175 

Boston Catalogue: Page 14, No. 138. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 105, No. 372. 
London Catalogue: Page 29, No. 175. 

(176). Drury Lane W 176 

London Catalogue: Page 29, No. 176. 

(177). The Balcony W 177 

Boston Catalogue: Page 14, No. 139. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 106, No. 373. 
London Catalogue: Page 29, No. 177. 

(178). Fishing Boat W 178 

London Catalogue: Page 29, No. 178. 

(179). Ponte Piovan W 179 

Boston Catalogue: Page 15, No. 140. 
London Catalogue: Page 29, No. 179. 

(180). Garden W 180 

Boston Catalogue: Page 15, No. 141. 
London Catalogue: Page 29, No. 180. 



WHISTLER'S ETCHINGS 277 

(181). The Rialto W 181 

Boston Catalogue: Page 15, No. 142. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 106, No. 374. 
London Catalogue: Page 29, No. 181. 

(182). Long Venice W 182 

Boston Catalogue: Page 15, No. 143. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 106, No. 375. 
London Catalogue: Page 29, No. 182. 

(183). Furnace, Nocturne W 183 

Boston Catalogue: Page 15, No. 144. 
London Catalogue: Page 29, No. 183. 

(184). Quiet Canal W 184 

London Catalogue: Page 29, No. 184. 

(185). Salute: Dawn W 185 

Boston Catalogue: Page 15, No. 145. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 106, No. 376. 
London Catalogue: Page 29, No. 185. 

(186). Lagoon: Noon W 186 

Boston Catalogue: Page 15, No. 146. 
London Catalogue: Page 29, No. 186. 

(187). Murano, Glass Furnace W 187 

Paris Catalogue: Page 106, No. 378. 
London Catalogue: Page 29, No. 187. 

(188). Fish-Shop, Venice W 188 

London Catalogue: Page 29, No. 188. 

(189). The Dyer W 189 

Boston Catalogue: Page 15, No. 147. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 106, No. 379. 
London Catalogue: Page 29, No. 189. 



278 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

(190). Little Salute W 190 

Boston Catalogue: Page 15, No. 148. 
London Catalogue: Page 29, No. 190. 

(191). Wool Carders W 191 

Paris Catalogue: Page 106, No. 380. 

(192). Regent's Quadrant W 192 

London Catalogue: Page 30, No. 192. * 

(193). Islands W 193 

Boston Catalogue: Page 15, No. 149. 
London Catalogue: Page 30, No. 193. 

(194). Nocturne, Shipping W 194 

Boston Catalogue: Page 15, No. 150. 
London Catalogue: Page 30, No. 194. 

(195). Old Women W 195 

Grolier Club. No. 197. 

(196). Alderney Street W 196 

London Catalogue: Page 30, No. 196. 

(197). The Smithy W 197 

Boston Catalogue: Page 16, No. 152. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 106, No. 381. 
London Catalogue: Page 30, No. 197. 

(198). Stables W 198 

Boston Catalogue: Page 16, No. 153. 
London Catalogue: Page 30, No. 198. 

(199). Nocturne, Salute W 199 

Boston Catalogue: Page 16, No. 154. 
London Catalogue: Page 30, No. 199. 



WHISTLER'S ETCHINGS 279 

(200). Dordrecht W 200 

Boston Catalogue: Page 16, No. 160. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 106, No. 382. 
London Catalogue: Page 30, No. 200. 

(201). A Corner of the Palais Royal W 201 

London Catalogue: Page 30, No. 201. 

(202). Sketch at Dieppe W 202 

London Catalogue: Page 30, No. 202. 

(203). Booth at a Fair W 203 

London Catalogue: Page 30, No. 203. 

(204). Cottage Door W 204 

Boston Catalogue: Page 16, No. 161. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 106, No. 383. 
London Catalogue: Page 30, No. 204. 

(205)_. The Village Sweet-Shop W 205 

Boston Catalogue: Page 16, No. 162. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 106, No. 384. 
London Catalogue: Page 30, No. 205. 

(206). The Seamstress W 206 

London Catalogue: Page 30, No. 206. 

(207). Sketch in St. James's Park W 207 

London Catalogue: Page 30, No. 207. 

(208). Fragment of Piccadilly W 208 

London Catalogue: Page 30, No. 20S. 

(209). Old Clothes Shop W 209 

London Catalogue: Page 30, No. 209. 

(210). The Fruit-Shop W 210 

London Catalogue: Page 31, No. 210. 



280 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

(211). A Sketch on the Embankment W 211 

London Catalogue: Page 31, No. 211. 

(212). The Menpes Children W 212 

London Catalogue: Page 31, No. 212. 

(213). The Steps W 213 

London Catalogue: Page 31, No. 213. 

(214). The Fish-Shop: "Busy Chelsea" W 214 

Boston Catalogue: Page 17, No. 163. 
London Catalogue: Page 31, No. 214. 

(Wrongly called the "Fruit Shop" in London Cat- 
alogue.) 

(215). T. A. Nash Fruit Shop W 215 

Paris Catalogue: Page 106, No. 385. 
London Catalogue: Page 31, No. 215. 

(216). Furniture-Shop W 216 

London Catalogue: Page 31, No. 216. 

(217). Savoy Scaffolding W 217 

Paris Catalogue: Page 107, No. 386. 
London Catalogue: Page 31, No. 217. 

(218). Railway Arch W 218 

London Catalogue: Page 31, No. 218. 

(219). Rochester Row W 219 

Boston Catalogue: Page 17, No. 165. 
London Catalogue: Page 31, No. 219. 

(220). York Street, Westminster W 220 

Boston Catalogue: Page 17, No. 166. 
London Catalogue: Page 31, No. 220. 

(221). The Fur Cloak W 221 

London Catalogue: Page 31, No. 221. 



WHISTLER'S ETCHINGS 281 

(222). Woman, Seated W 222 

London Catalogue: Page 31, No. 222. 

(223). Steamboat Fleet TO 223 

London Catalogue: Page 31, No. 223. 

(224). Mother and Child, Cameo No. 1 W 224 

Boston Catalogue: Page 17, No. 167. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 107, No. 387. 
London Catalogue: Page 31, No. 224. 

(225). Sketch of Battersea Bridge W 225 

London Catalogue: Page 31, No. 225. 

(226). Putney, No. 3 L W, 226 

Boston Catalogue: Page 12, No. 115. 
London Catalogue: Page 31, No. 226. 

(227). F. R. Leyland's Mother W 227 

London Catalogue: Page 31, No. 227. 
(Not in Grolier Club's exhibition.)] 

(228). Wild West lW 228 

Grolier Club. No. 239. 

(229 J. The Barber's W, 229 

Boston Catalogue: Page 17, No. 170". 
Paris Catalogue: Page 107, No. 388. 
London Catalogue: Page 31, No. 229. 

(230). Petticoat Lane W* 230 

London Catalogue: Page 32, No. 230 

(231). Old Clothes Exchange, No. 1 Wi 231 

Boston Catalogue: Page 20, No. 202. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 107, No. 389. 
London Catalogue: Page 32, No. 231. 



282 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

(232). St. James's Place, Houndsditch L W, 232 

London Catalogue: Page 32, No. 232. 

(233). Fleur de Lys Passage IW 233 

London Catalogue: Page 32, No. 233. 

(234). Cutler's Street W 234 

London Catalogue: Page 32, No. 234. 

(235). The Cock and the Pump W 235 

Boston Catalogue: Page 17, No. 171. 
London Catalogue: Page 32, No. 235. 

(236). Sandwich: Salvation Army W 236 

London Catalogue: Page 32, No. 236. 

(237). Visitor's Boat W 237 

Boston Catalogue: Page 17, No. 172. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 107, No. 390. 
London Catalogue: Page 32, No. 237. 

(238). Troop Ships W 238 

Boston Catalogue: Page 18, No. 173. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 107, No. 391. 
London Catalogue: Page 32, No. 238. 

(239). Monitors W 239 

Boston Catalogue: Page 18, No. 174. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 107, No. 392. 
London Catalogue: Page 32, No. 239. 

(240). Dry Dock, Southampton W 240 

Paris Catalogue: Page 107, No. 393. 
London Catalogue: Page 32, No. 240. 

(241). Bunting W 241 

Paris Catalogue: Page 107, No. 394. 
London Catalogue: Page 32, No. 241. 



WHISTLER'S ETCHINGS 283 

(242). Dipping the Flag W 242 

Paris Catalogue: Page 107, No. 395. 
London Catalogue: Page 32, No. 242 

(243). The Fleet— Evening W 243 

Boston Catalogue: Page 18, No. 175. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 107, No. 396. 
London Catalogue: Page 32, No. 243. 

(244). Return to Tilbury W 244 

Boston Catalogue: Page 18, No. 177. 
London Catalogue: Page 32, No. 244. 

(245). Landing Stage, Cowes (Ryde Pier) W 245 

Paris Catalogue: Page 108, No. 397. 
London Catalogue: Page 32, No. 245. 

(In the London Catalogue on Page 18 it is stated 
that No. 245 is "incorrectly described by Wedmore as 
Ryde Pier.") 

(246). Chelsea W 246 

Paris Catalogue: Page 108, No. 401. 

(247). Windsor W 247 

Paris Catalogue: Page 108, No. 402. 
London Catalogue: Page 32, No. 247. 

(248). Canal, Ostend W 248 

Grolier Club. No. 266. 

(249). The Church, Brussels W 249 

London Catalogue: Page 32, No. 249. 

(250). Court- Yard, Brussels W 250 

Boston Catalogue: Page 18, No. 178. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 108, No. 403. 
London Catalogue: Page 33, No. 250. 



284 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

(251). Grande Place, Brussels W 251 

Boston Catalogue: Page 18, No. 179. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 108, No. 404. 
London Catalogue: Page 33, No. 251. 

(252). Palace, Brussels W 252 

Boston Catalogue: Page 18, No. 180. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 108, No. 405. 
London Catalogue: Page 33, No. 252. 

(253). The Barrow, Brussels W 253 

Paris Catalogue: Page 108, No. 406. 
London Catalogue: Page 33, No. 253. 

(254). The High Street, Brussels W 254 

Boston Catalogue: Page 18, No. 181. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 108, No. 407. 
London Catalogue: Page 33, No. 254. 

(255). The Market Place, Bruges W 255 

London Catalogue: Page 33, No. 255. 

(256). Passages de L'Opera W 256 

Boston Catalogue: Page 18, No. 182. 
London Catalogue: Page 33, No. 256. 

(257). Carpet Menders W 257 

Boston Catalogue: Page 19, No. 184. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 108, No. 408. 

(258). Sunflowers, rue des Beaux-Arts W 258 

Boston Catalogue: Page 19, No. 185. 

(259). Mairie, Loches W 259 

Boston Catalogue: Page 19, No. 186. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 108, No. 409. 
London Catalogue: Page 33, No. 259. 



WHISTLER'S ETCHINGS 285 

(260). Steps, Amsterdam W 260 

Boston Catalogue: Page 19, No. 187. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 108, No. 410. 
London Catalogue: Page 33, No. 260. 

(261). Square House, Amsterdam W 261 

Boston Catalogue: Page 19, No. 188. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 108, No. 411. 
London Catalogue: Page 33, No. 261. 

(262). Balcony, Amsterdam W 262 

Boston Catalogue: Page 19, No. 189. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 109, No. 412. 
London Catalogue: Page 33, No. 262. 

(263). The Little Drawbridge W 263 

Paris Catalogue: Page 109, No. 413. 
London Catalogue: Page 33, No. 263. 

(264). Pierrot W 264 

Boston Catalogue: Page 19, No. 191. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 109, No. 414. 
London Catalogue: Page 33, No. 264. 

(265). Nocturne: Dance House W 265 

Boston Catalogue: Page 19, No. 192. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 109, No. 415. 
London Catalogue: Page 33, No. 265. 

(266). Long House— Dyer's, Amsterdam W 266 

Boston Catalogue: Page 19, No. 193. 
London Catalogue: Page 33, No. 266. 

(267). Bridge, Amsterdam W 267 

Boston Catalogue: Page 19, No. 194. 
London Catalogue: Page 33, No. 267. 



286 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

(268). Zaandam W 268 

Boston Catalogue: Page 20, No. 197. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 109, No. 416. 
London Catalogue: Page 34, No. 268. 

(269). Speke Hall, No. 2 S 269 

London Catalogue: Page 34, No. 269. 

(270). Church Doorway, Edgemere S 270 

London Catalogue: Page 34, No. 270. 

(271). Double Doorway, Sandwich S 271 

Grolier Club. No. 298. 

(272). Doorway, Sandwich S 272- 

Paris Catalogue: Page 109, No. 418. 

(273). Butcher's Shop, Sandwich S 273 

Grolier Club. No. 300. 

(274). Ramparts, Sandwich S 274 

Boston Catalogue: Page 20, No. 198. 
London Catalogue: Page 34, No. 274. 

(275). Portsmouth Children S 275 

Paris Catalogue: Page 108, No. 399. 
London Catalogue: Page 34, No. 275. 

(276). Tilbury S 276 

Paris Catalogue: Page 108, No. 400. 
London Catalogue: Page 34, No. 276. 

(277). Windsor S 277 

Grolier Club. No. 264. 

(278). Little Putney, No. 2 S 278 

(279). Battersea Bridge, No. 3 S 279* 

(Numbers 278 and 279 do not appear in the cata- 
logues of the Memorial Exhibitions or in that of the 
Grolier Club exhibition.) 



WHISTLER'S ETCHINGS 287 

(280). Under Battersea Bridge S 280 

London Catalogue: Page 34, No. 280. 

(281). Melon Shop, Houndsditch S 281 

Boston Catalogue: Page 20, No. 199. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 109, No. 419. 
London Catalogue: Page 34, No. 281. 

(282). After the Sale, Houndsditch S 282 

Grolier Club. No. 303. 

(283). Steps, Gray's Inn S 283 

Grolier Club. No. 304. 

(284). Gray's Inn Babies S 284 

London Catalogue: Page 34, No. 284. 

(285). Gray's Inn Place S 285 

Boston Catalogue: Page 20, No. 201. 
London Catalogue: Page 34, No. 285. 

(286). Seats, Gray's Inn S 286 

Grolier Club. No. 308. 

(287). Exeter Street S 287 

London Catalogue: Page 35, No. 287. 

(288). Abbey Jubilee S 288 

Grolier Club. No. 262. 

(289). Bird Cages, Drury Lane S 289 

London Catalogue: Page 35, No. 289. 

(290). The Bucking Horse. S 290 

London Catalogue: Page 35, No. 290. 

(291). Rag Shop, Milman's Row S 291 

Boston Catalogue: Page 17, No. 164. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 109, No. 420. 
London Catalogue: Page 35, No. 291. 



288 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

(292.) Clothes Exchange, No. 2 S 292 

Boston Catalogue: Page 20, No. 203. 
London Catalogue: Page 35, No. 292. 

(293). Charing Cross Railway Bridge S 293 

Boston Catalogue: Page 20, No. 204. 
London Catalogue: Page 35, No. 293. 

(294). Shaving and Shampooing S 294 

Boston Catalogue: Page 17, No. 169. 

(295). Jubilee Place, Chelsea S 295 

Boston Catalogue: Page 20, No. 205. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 109, No. 421. 
London Catalogue: Page 35, No. 295. 

(296). Justice Walk, Chelsea S 296 

Boston Catalogue: Page 21, No. 206. 
London Catalogue: Page 35, No. 296. 

(297). Bird Cages, Chelsea S 297 

Boston Catalogue: Page 21, No. 207. 
London Catalogue: Page 35, No. 297. 

(298). Merton Villa, Chelsea S 298 

Boston Catalogue: Page 21, No. 208. 
London Catalogue: Page 35, No. 298. 

(299). Little Maunders S 299 

Paris Catalogue: Page 109, No. 422. 
London Catalogue: Page 35, No. 299. 

(300). Custom House S 300 

(Not in the catalogues of the Memorial Exhibi- 
tions or in that of the Grolier Club exhibition.) 

(301). Nut Shop, St. James's Place S 301 

Boston Catalogue: Page 21, No. 209. 
London Catalogue: Page 35, No. 301. 



WHISTLER'S ETCHINGS 289 

(302). Old Clothes Shop, No. 2 S 302 

London Catalogue: Page 35, No. 302. 

(303). Model, Stooping S 303 

London Catalogue: Page 36, No. 303. 

(304). Nude Figure, Reclining S 304 

Grolier Club. No. 330. 

(305). Binding the Hair S 305 

Grolier Club. No. 331. 

(306). The Little Hat S 306 

London Catalogue: Page 36, No. 306. 

(307). The Little Nurse Maid S 307 

London Catalogue: Page 36, No. 307. 
(Not in the Grolier Club exhibiton.) 

(308). Baby Pettigrew S 308 

Grolier Club. No. 333. 

(309). Miss Lenoir S 309 

Grolier Club. No. 334. 

(310). Swan and Iris S 310 

Boston Catalogue: Page 21, No. 210. 
London Catalogue: Page 36, No. 310. 

(311). Mother and Child, Cameo No. 2 S 311 

Boston Catalogue: Page 17, No. 168. 

(312). Marbles S 312 

Grolier Club. No. 341. 

(313). Bebes, Luxembourg Gardens S 313 

Boston Catalogue: Page 23, No. 229. 

(314). Terrace: Luxembourg Gardens S 314 

Paris Catalogue: Page 109, No. 423. 



290 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

(315). Boulevard, Poissonniere S 315 

Boston Catalogue: Page 21, No. 211. 

(316). Rue Rochefoucault S 316 

Boston Catalogue: Page 21, No. 212. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 109, No. 424. 
London Catalogue: Page 36, No. 316. 

(317). Quai de Montebello S 317 

Boston Catalogue: Page 21, No. 213. 
London Catalogue: Page 36 2 No. 317. 

(318). Quai, Ostend S 318 

GrolierClub. No. 267. 

(319). Railway Station, Voves S 319 

Boston Catalogue: Page 21, No. 214. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 109, No. 425. 

(320). Rue des Bons-Enfants, Tours S 320 

Paris Catalogue: Page 110, No. 426. 
London Catalogue: Page 36, No. 320. 

(321). Hotel Croix Blanche, Tours S 321 

Grolier Club. No. 358. 

(322). Market-Place, Tours S 322 

Boston Catalogue: Page 21, No. 215, 

(323). Hangman's House, Tours S 323 

Boston Catalogue: Page 21, No. 216. 
London Catalogue: Page 36, No. 323. 

(324). Little Market-Place, Tours S 324 

Boston Catalogue: Page 22, No. 217. 

(325). Cellar Door, Tours S 325 

Grolier Club. No. 362. 



WHISTLER'S ETCHINGS 29 1 

(326). Place Daumont S 326 

Grolier Club. No. 363. 

(327). Chateau S 327 

Grolier Club. No. 364. 

(328). Chateau, Touraine S 328 

Grolier Club. No. 365. 

(329). Doorway, Touraine S 329 

Grolier Club. No. 366. 

(330). Court of the Monastery of St. Augustine at 

Bourges S 330 

Boston Catalogue: Page 22, No. 218. 

(331). Hotel Allement, Bourges S 331 

Boston Catalogue: Page 22, No. 219. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 110, No. 427. 

(332). Windows, Bourges S 332 

Grolier Club. No. 369. 

(333). Windows Opposite Hotel, Bourges S 333 

Paris Catalogue: Page 110, No. 428. 
London Catalogue: Page 37, No. 333. 

(334). Chancellerie, Loches S 334 

Boston Catalogue: Page 22, No. 220. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 110, No. 429. 
London Catalogue: Page 37, No. 334. 

(335). Market Women, Loches S 335 

Grolier Club. No. 373. 

(336). Hotel Promenade S 336 

Grolier Club. No. 374. 

(337). Theatre, Loches S 337 

Grolier Club. No. 375. 



292 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

(338). Tour St. Antoine, Loches 
Grolier Club. No. 376. 

(339). Market-Place, Loches 

Grolier Club. No. 377. 

(340). Renaissance Window, Loches 

Boston Catalogue: Page 22, No. 221. 

(341). Chapel Doorway, Montresor 

Boston Catalogue: Page 22, No. 222. 
London Catalogue: Page 37. 

(342). Chateau, Amboise 

Grolier Club. No. 382. 

(343). Clock Tower, Amboise 

Boston Catalogue: Page 22, No. 223. 

(344). Gateway, Chartreux 

Grolier Club. No. 384. 

(345). Under the Cathedral, Blois 

Boston Catalogue: Page 22, No. 224. 

(346). A Guild House, Brussels 

London Catalogue: Page 37, No. 346. 

(347). Gold House, Brussels 

London Catalogue: Page 38, No. 347. 

(348). Butter Street, Brussels 
Grolier Club. No. 388. 

(349). House of the Swan 

Grolier Club. No. 389. 

(350). Archway, Brussels 

Boston Catalogue: Page 18, No. 183. 
London Catalogue: Page 38, No. 350. 



S 338 


S 339 


S 340 


S 341 


S 342 


S 343 


S 344 


S 345 


S 346 


S 347 


S 348 


S 349 


S 350 



WHISTLER'S ETCHINGS 293 

(351). Courtyard, Rue P. L. Courier S 351 

Grolier Club. No. 391. 

(352). Brussels Children S 352 

Grolier Club. No. 392. 

(353). Little Butter Street S 353 

Grolier Club. No. 393. 

(354). Chateau Verneuil S 354 

Grolier Club. No. 394. 

(355). Church, Amsterdam S 355 

Grolier Club. No. 288. 

(356). The Embroidered Curtain S 356 

Boston Catalogue: Page 20, No. 195. 
London Catalogue: Page 38, No. 356. 

(357). Jews' Quarters, Amsterdam S 357 

Grolier Club: No. 290. 

(358). The Mill S 358 

Boston Catalogue: Page 20, No. 196. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 109, No. 417. 

(359). Little Nocturne, Amsterdam S 359 

Grolier Club: No. 291. 

(360). The Hole in the Wall— Ajaccio S 360 

Boston Catalogue: Page 23, No. 234. 
(The same as "Bohemians, Corsica.") 

(361). Venice S 361 

Grolier Club. No. 202. 

(362). Seymour, Standing S 362 

Grolier Club. No. 25. 

(363). Opposite Lindsay Row S 363 

London Catalogue: Page 38, No. 363. 



294 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

(364). A Lady Wearing a Hat with a Feather S 364 

Grolier Club. No. 120. 

(365). A Girl with Large Eyes S 365 

Grolier Club. No. 121. 

(366). A Sketch of Heads S 366 

Grolier Club. No. 122. 

(367). Nora Quinn S 367 

Grolier Club. No. 231. 

(368). The Traghetto S 368 

Grolier Club. No. 157. 

(369). An Eagle S 369 

Grolier Club. No. 395. 

(370). Jo—Bent Head S 370 

Boston Catalogue: Page 8, No. 58. 
London Catalogue: Page 39, No. 370. 

(371). Young Woman, Standing S 371 

Grolier Club. No. 102. 

(372). Nude Figure, Standing S 372 

Grolier Club. No. 109. 

(373). Au Sixieme G 4 

Grolier Club. No. 4. 

(374). Sketching No. 2 G 72 

Grolier Club. No. 72. 

(375). Court Yard, Venice G 203 

Boston Catalogue: Page 16, No. 156. 

(376.) Gondola Under a Bridge G 204 

Boston Catalogue: Page 16, No. 157. 

(377.) The Steamboat, Venice G 205 

Boston Catalogue: Page 16, No. 158. 



WHISTLER'S ETCHINGS 295 

(378). Venetian Water Carrier G 206 

Boston Catalogue: Page 16, No. 159. 

(379). Shipping, Venice G 207 

Grolier Club. No. 207. 

(380). The Towing Path G 217 

Grolier Club. No. 217. 

(381). Wild West— Buffalo Bill G 241 

Grolier Club. No. 241. 

(382). Turret Ship G 261 

Boston Catalogue: Page 18, No. 176. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 108, No. 398. 
London Catalogue: Page 18, No. 139. 

(383). The Beach, Ostend G 268 

Grolier Club. No. 268. 

(384). The Little Wheelwright's G 294 

Grolier Club. No. 294. 

(385). Little Dordrecht G 295 

Grolier Club. No. 295. 

(386). Boats, Dordrecht G 296 

Grolier Club. No. 296. 

(387). The Greedy Baby G 306 

Grolier Club. No. 306. 

(388). Babies, Gray's Inn G 310 

Grolier Club. No. 310. 

(389). Children, Gray's Inn G 311 

Grolier Club. No. 311. 

(390). St. Martin's Lane— Rag Shop G 315 

Grolier Club. No. 315. 



296 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

(391). King's Road, Chelsea G 323 

Grolier Club. No. 323. 

(392). The Hansom Cab, or Wimpole Street G 324 

Grolier Club. No. 324. 

(393). Wood's Fruit Shop G 326 

London Catalogue: Page 40, No. 378. 

(394). Resting by the Stove G 336 

London Catalogue: Page 40, No. 381. 

(385). Little Nude Figure G 337 

London Catalogue: Page 39, No. 376. 

(396.) Model Number 3 G 388 

Grolier Club. No. 338. 

(397). The Bonnet Shop G 339 

Grolier Club. No. 339. 

(398). The Mantle G 340 

Grolier Club. No. 340. 

(399). Dray Horse G 347 

Grolier Club. No. 347. 

(400). Marchand de Vin, Paris G 348 

Boston Catalogue: Page 23, No. 230. 

(401). Rue de Seine G 349 

Boston Catalogue: Page 23, No. 233. 
London Catalogue: Page 40, No. 379. 

(402). Atelier Bijouterie G 350 

Boston Catalogue: Page 23, No. 231. 
Paris Catalogue Page 110, No. 432. 
London Catalogue: Page 39, No. 373. 

(403). Cafe Luxembourg G 351 

Boston Catalogue: Page 23, No. 232. 



WHISTLER'S ETCHINGS 297 

(404). The Terrace, Luxembourg Gardens G 352 

London Catalogue: Page 40, No. 377. 

(405). J. L. Druez's Fruit and Flower Shop G 353 

London Catalogue: Page 39, No. 375. 

(406). The Wine Shop G 354 

Grolier Club: No. 354. 

(407). The Picture Shop G 355 

Grolier Club: No. 355. 

(408). Hotel Windows, Bourges G 370 

Grolier Club: No. 370. 

(409). Notre-Dame, Bourges G 371 

Boston Catalogue: Page 23, No. 227. 

(410). Hotel de Ville, Loches G 379 

Boston Catalogue: Page 22, No. 226. 

(411). From Agnes Sorell's Walk, Loches G 380 

Boston Catalogue: Page 22, No. 225. 
Paris Catalogue: Page 110, No. 433. 

(412). A Market, Ostend L 380 

London Catalogue: Page 40, No. 380. 

(413). Coast Survey L 400 

1854-55. Paris Catalogue: Page 101, No. 289. 

London Catalogue: Page 46, No. 400. 

(The London Exhibition contained two of these 

Coast Survey subjects. In No. 400 only a part of the 

plate was etched by Whistler.) 

(414). The Silk Dress L 382 

London Catalogue: Page 41, No. 382. 

(415). Luxembourg Garden L 383 

London Catalogue: Page 41, No. 383. 



298 THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 

(416). Sailing Boats off Battersea L 384 

London Catalogue: Page 41, No. 384. 

(417). Nude Model L 385 

London Catalogue: Page 41, No. 385. 

(418). Two Young Girls L 386 

London Catalogue: Page 42, No. 386. 

(419). Female Figure L 387 

London Catalogue: Page 42, No. 387. 

(420). Portrait of Mr. Leyland L 388 

London Catalogue: Page 42, No. 388. 

(421). Coast Survey No. 1 L 401 

London Catalogue: Page 46, No. 401. 

(422). Polichinelle — Jardin du Luxembourg P 434 

Paris Catalogue: Page 110, No. 434. 

(423). Marchand de Meubles Rue du Four P 435 

Paris Catalogue: Page 110, No. 435. 

(424). Fruiterie, Rue de Seine P 436 

Paris Catalogue: Page 110, No. 436. 

(425). Cafe Corazza, Palais-Royal P 437 

Paris Catalogue: Page 110, No. 437. 

(426). The Bushy P 438 

Paris Catalogue: Page 110, No. 438. 



INDEX 



INDEX 



Adam and Eve Tavern, The 

(etching) 108, 109, 113 

Afternoon Tea, (lithograph) 127 
Albright Art Gallery, 3 

Alexander, Miss Cicely Hen- 
rietta, portrait of, 77 
Alexander, Miss, portrait of, 

77, 78 
Alexandre, Arsene, 106 

Alsace-Lorraine, 31 

Amsterdam, 31, 35 

Annunciation, The, by Rossetti, 37 
Astruc — A Literary Man, 

(etching) 120 

Arrangement in Flesh Color 

and Black, (painting) 87 
Art Notes, 125 

At the piano, (painting) 14, 27 
Axenfeld, (etching) 120 

Babbott, Frank Lusk, 80, 120 
Bancroft, Samuel, _ 36 

Barbedienne, Ferdinand, 56 

"Barbizon School," 135 

Bastien-Lepage, 40, 79 

Bead Stringers, (etching), 113 
Beata Beatrix. (Rossetti's) 36 
Beaux-Arts, Ecole des 46 

Becquet, (etching) 120 

Beggars, The, (etching) 113 

Benedite, Leonce, 13, 16, 23, 25 
26, 32, 38, 41, 46, 47, 48, 56 
57, 78 
Berenson, Bemhard, 49 

Biarritz, 16, 17 

Black Lion Wharf, (etching) 108 
Blacksmith, The, (lithograph) 130 
Blue and Violet 18 

Blue Wave, The, 14, 18, 19, 20 

23, 25 
Boston Memorial Exhibition, 5, 50 
Boston Museum of Fine Arts, 79 
Bracquemond, Felix, 13, 55, 56 
104, 105 
Bridge, The, (etching) 109, 113 
Broad Bridge, (lithograph) 126 
Buhot, Felix 116 



Burne- Jones, Edward, 72, 115, 139 
Cadogan Pier, (etching) 113 

Campbell, Portrait of Lady- 
Archibald, (painting) 83, 87 
Canfield, f Richard A., 83 

Caprice in Purple and Gold: 
The Golden S c r e e n*, 
(painting) 60 

Carlyle, Portrait of, (paint- 

ing) 74, 75 

Carmen, 84 

Carriere, Eugene 72 

Carter, Walter S., 121, 122 

Cassatt, Alexander J., 78, 83 

Cazin, J. C, 47 

Chelsea Girl, (painting) 82, 83 
Chelsea Wharf, 113 

Chesnau, E., 55, 56 

Cheyne Walk, 35 

Chevreul, 42 

Chinese Landscape Painting, 66 
Chintreuil, Antoine, 47 

Christ Taking Leave of His 

Mother, 65 

Christofle, 56 

Clock-Makers, (lithograph) 127 
Coast Survey plate, 3, 97 

Comparative Exhibition, 50 

Confidences in the Garden, 

(lithograph) 127 

Constable, 138 

Corot, J. B. C, 123 

Cottier Galleries, 16 

Courbet, 9, 12, 13, 16, 17, 19, 20 
21, 22, 24, 25, 31, 39 
Couture, 11 

Cox, Kenyon, 66, 91 

Cremorne Gardens, 62 

Daumier, Honore, 125 

Day Dream, The, (Rossetti's) 38 
Decamps, Alexandre Gabriel, 123 
Degas, Edgar, 56 

Delacroix, Eugene, 11, 123 

Delatre, Auguste, 55, 106, 107 
Die Lange Leizen, of The Six 
Marks, (painting) 57 



300 



THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 



Dowdeswell, 116 

Draped Figure, reclining, 

(lithograph) 132 

Dr. Johnson at the Mitre, 

(Rossetti's) 35 

Drouet, (etching) 120 

Duran, Carolus, 5'6 

Durand-Ruel, 125 

Duret, Theodore. 5, 11, 19, 41, 60 

85, 86 87, 88, 91, 97, 108, 111 
112, 115 

on Couture, 12, on Manet, 89 
Eagle, An, (etching) 118 

England, Whistler's visit to, 

in I860, 14 

Early Morning, (lithograph) 

126, 129 
Falize, 56 
Fantin-Latour, 13, 15, 28, 31, 32 

39, 41, 42, 46, 47, 56, 57, 125 
130 
Fiammetta, (Rossetti's) 59, 60 
Fine Art Society of London, 

111, 115 
Forget- Me-Not, The, (paint- 
ing) 50 
French Set, (etchings) 31, 97, 98 
99, 103 
Fromentin, E., on Rubens, 

3, on Franz Hals, 51 

Fulham, (etching) 122 

Furnace Nocturne, (etching) 113 
Garden, The, (etching) 122 

Gardner, Mrs. John L., 19 

Gavarni, (S. P. Chevalier) 123 
Gleyre's Studio 3, 23 

Green and Silver: The Pho- 
tographer, 25 
Greenwich Park, (etching) 105 
Guethary, 31 
Haden, Annie, 15, 29 
Haden, Lady, 15 
Haden, Sir Seymour, 104, 105 
Harmony in Gray and Green, 

(painting) 77 

Helen of Troy, (Rossetti's) 36 
Hokusai, 55 

Horoscope, The, (lithograph) 

127, 134 
Hunt, Holman, 38 
Hutchinson, J. H., 121 



"Impressionists," 137 

Ingres, Andromeda of, 13, 25, 28 
(copied by Whistler*) 23 

Irving, Henry, as Philip II 

(painting) 83 

Isle de la Cite, The, (etching) 96 
Jaccaci, August F., 20 

Jacquemart, J. F., 56 

Japanese Dress, The, 43, 57 

Japanese Painting, charac- 
teristics of, 66 
Joan of Arc, of Bastien- 

Lepage, 40; of Rossetti, 35 
Johnson, J. G., 57, 66 

Jongkind, 47 

Keppel Galleries, 23 

Kitchen, The, (etching) 100 

113, 122 
Kokka, The, 66 

La Belle Dame Endormie, 

(lithograph). 127 

La Belle Jardiniere, (litho- 
graph). 127 
La Blanchisseuse de la Place 

Dauphine, (lithograph) 127 
Lady Lilith, (Rossetti's) 37 

Lady with the Yellow Buskin, 

(painting) 83 

La Mere Gerard, (etching), 

98, 101 
La Mer Orageuese, (Cour- 

bet's) 16, 20 

Landscape with the Horse, 



102 



The, (etching) 
Last of Old Westminster, 

The, (painting) 22, 23 

Laurens, Jean Paul 47, 83, 87 

La Vague, (Courbet's) 16, 19, 20 
Laveielle 53 

La Vieille, aux Loques, (etch- 
ing), 



101 



Legros, Alphonse, 13, 47, 104, 106 
Leyland, Florence, 44 

Leyland, Miss, 57 

Limehouse, (etching) 108 

Little, Arthur, (etching) 101, 102 
Little Blue and Gold Girl, 

(painting) 50, 101, 102 

Little Lady Sophie of Soho, 

The, (painting) 80 

Little London, (lithograph) 126 



INDEX 



301 



Little Penelope Boothby 

(Reynolds's) 77 

Little Rose of Lyme-Regis, 

(painting) 77, 79 

Little Venice, (etching) 115 

Little White Girl, The, 

Symphony in White 

Number 2, (painting) 48, 65 

Liver dun, (etching) 104 

London Memorial Exhibition, 5 

Lotto, Lorenzo, 65 

Louvre, 13, 23 

Lucretia Borgia, (Rossetti's) 36 

Mallarme Stephane, 85 

Manet, Edouard, 12, 13, 16, 47 

56, 88, 138, Life by Du- 

ret, 89, 90 

Mansfield, Howard, 24, 28, 43 

44, 50, 51 

Mantz, Paul, 19, 20 

Master Smith of Lyme-Regis, 

(lithograph) 141 

Menpes, Mortimer, 45, 113 

Menzel, Adolph, 123 

Metropolitan Museum of Fine 

Arts 37, 62 

Meux, Lady, portrait of 

(painting) 27 

Millais, J. E. 38 

Miser, The, (etching) 104 

Monet, Claude, 47, 56, 139, 140 
Montesquiou-Fezensac, Comte 

Robert de, (painting) 84 

Moore, Albert, 49 

Moore, George, 75, 76 

Morris, Mrs. William, 60 

Music Room, The, (painting) 

27, 29, 31, 37, 40, 49 
Napoleon III 46 

Naval Review, (etchings). 118 
Nocturne, (etching). 120, 122 

Nocturne in Black and Gold; 
The Falling Rocket, 
(painting) 64, 65 

Nocturne in Green and Gold, 

(painting) 62 

Old Smith's Story, The (lith- 
ograph) 127 
Paimpol, (lithograph) 127 
Palaces, The, (etching) 121 
Pandora, (Rossetti's) 60 
Park, Dr. Roswell, 3 



Park, Miss Mary, 3 

Paris, Whistler's Study in, 11 

Pennsylvania Academy Exhi- 
bition, 50 
Perros-Guirec, 31 
Pissarro, Camille, 47 
Pomfrett, Connecticut, 3 
Pope, Alfred Attmore, 16, 22, 84 
Portrait of a Lady, (painting) 83 
Portrait of Whistler's Moth- 
er, (painting) 73 
Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, 

31, 139 
Pretty Nellie Brown, (paint- 
ing) 80 
Price's Candle Works, (etch- 
ing) 113 
Priest's House-Rouen, (litho- 
graph). 130 
Proserpine, (Rossetti's) 38, 60 
Propositions 108, 109, 116, 117 
Raffet, 125 
Rag Gatherers, (etching) 99, 121 
Regina Cordium, (Rossetti's) 36 
Rembrandt's Night Watch, 31 
Reynolds, Sir Joshua, 72, 78 
Riggle, Dr. Edward, 124 
Riva, The, (etching) 113 
Riva, Number Two, (etching) 113 
Roman Widow, The (Ros- 
setti's) 38 
Romantic School of Painting, 11 
Rood, Ogden N., 12 
Rosa Corder, (painting) 83, 100 
Rose and Silver; La Prin- 
cesse du Pays de la Por- 
celaine. (painting) 58, 60 
Rossetti, D. G., 35, 36, 37, 38, 39 
40, 56, 57, 65, 138 
Rossetti, William M., 56 
Royal Academy, 14, 48, 111 
Rotherhithe, (etching) 108 
Rue de Rivoli, 55 
Ruskin, 38, 65, 112 
Russia, Whistler in 13 
Ruth Herbert, (Rossetti's) 36 
Salon, (of 1859) 15, (of 

1863) 46, (of 1885) 88 

Salon des Refuses, 16, 47 

Salute : Dawn, (etching) 115 

Sam Weller's Lodging in the 

Fleet Prison, (painting) 5 



302 



THE WORKS OF WHISTLER 



Sarasate, Sefior, (painting) 84 
Savoy Pigeons, (lithograph) 126 
Sesshu, 61 

Sir Tristram and La Belle 
Yseult drinking the Love 
Potion, (Rossetti's) 36 

Solon, 56 

Soye, de M., 56 

Spain, 31, 32 

Spaicali, Christine, 59 

Spartali, Marie, Mrs. Still- 
man 59 
Strawberry Girl, The, (Rey- 
nolds') 77 
Street at Saverne, (etching), 103 
Sunflowers, Rue des Beaux- 
Arts, (etching) 118 
Swinburne, A. C, 36, 48 
Swinburne, (etching) 120 
Symphony in Blue and Violet, 

(painting) 17, 18 

Symphony in Green and Rose 
(The Music Room), 
(painting) 41 

Symphony in White, Number 
1, (The White Girl), 
(painting) 41 

Symphony in White, Number 

3 (painting) 48 

Taki Seiichi 61 

Tall Bridge, (lithograph) 126 
Temple Bar, (etching) 114 

"Ten O'Clock" 65 

Tete-a-tete in the Garden, 

(lithograph) 127 

Thames Set, (etchings) 99 



Thames Warehouses, (etch- 
ing) 108, 109 
Thompson, Sir Henry 58 
Tissot, J. J., 56 
Toilet, The (lithograph) 126 
Tollhuis (etching) 31 
Traghetto, The (etching) 11? 
Trouville 19, 20 
Turner, J. M. W., 137 
"Twenty-Six," (etching) 116, 118 
Under Old Battersea Bridge, 

(etching) 113 

Untermyer, Mrs. Samuel, 64 
Upright Venice, (etching) 96, 113 
Variations in Flesh Color 
and Green; The Balcony, 
(painting) 60 

Velasquez, 13, 32 

Venetian etchings 4 

Watts, Frederick 138 

Way, Thomas, 27, 125, 127, 133 

134 
Way and Dennis, on Whistler 5 
Wedmore, Frederick, 97. 100, 112 
113, 121 
Westminster Bridge (etching) 121 
"Whistler as I Knew Him," 

(Menpes's) 45, 113 

White Girl, The (painting) 

37, 38, 39, 41, 46, 47, 49 
Wood, The (etching) 43 

Wych Street, (etching) 104 

Yellow Buskin, The, (paint- 
ing) 131, 134 
Yellow House — Lannion, 

(lithograph) 118, 134 



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